Wednesday, October 30, 2019

4 appeals ads analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

4 appeals ads analysis - Essay Example The ad features a man licking on a woman's foot in a seductive fashion. There is a bottle of one of the varieties of Hugo's fragrances pictured. The advertisement reads, "Your Fragrance, Your Rules" (The Retiary Network, 2008, pg. 1). This advertisement is aimed at teenagers and young adults. It provokes an emotional response that, if you wear Hugo fragrances, this too can happen to you. Sex appeal was used in this advertisement to attract customers of reproductive age, as well as to make viewers feel like Hugo fragrances can bring them a mate. This advertisement is quite effective at triggering an emotional response utilizing sex appeal (The Retiary Network, 2008).The advertisement that was chosen for the fear appeal category is an anti-tobacco campaign advertisement. It features two photographs of a man: one where he appears healthy, normal, and having a good time and another where he appears swollen and very ill in a hospital bed dying of oral cancer. The advertisement reads, "The y fooled him. Don't let them fool you" and "With candy flavors and slick advertising, the smokeless tobacco industry has hooked over a million kids. Now they're trying to convince Congress to let them make misleading health claims about their products. Don't be fooled" (Tobacco Free Kids, 2008, pg. 1). This advertisement is directed towards both those who use tobacco in an attempt to get them to stop and towards those who do not to prevent them from ever starting in the first place. It is especially aimed at children and teens and those with voting power. The photographs are very effective at instilling shock and fear into a person and scaring him or her into avoiding tobacco. This advertisement was used to provoke the emotional response to think that, hey, that could happen to me, too and that the viewer should not use tobacco (Tobacco Free Kids, 2008). Humor The advertisement that was chosen for the humor appeal category is an M & M's advertisement. It features an M & M candy piece that is decorated to look like Burt Reynolds, who is grinning in a humorous fashion, dressed up like a cowboy, and leaning up against a truck. The whole idea of using humor here is to invoke the emotions associated with having a good time, laughing, and eating candy in order to convince viewers of all ages to go out and purchase M & M's candy. This particular advertisement was part of a campaign to get people to personalize their M & M's with their own messages. Through picturing a celebrity as an M & M, it provides a humorous character impersonation that is designed to get people of all ages-but especially adults-to take advantage of the offer to print their personalized messages on M & M's. Of the four advertisements that were chosen for this assignment, this one is probably the least effective at eliciting an emotional response, however (M&M's, 2008). Rational The advertisement that was chosen for the rational appeal category is a Hank's Beverages advertisement. The advertisement features a photograph of a sportscar and a beverage from Hank's and reads, "Only one of these is both rich and affordable. Genuine Hank's Beverages. A taste of the sweet life" (Allison Furkey, 2008, pg. 1). This advertisement was placed into the rational category because it invokes a sense of practicality. Everyone dreams of having that fancy sportscar, but here is a beverage everyone can actually afford. It also heightens the image of Hank's by portraying it as a fancy or

Monday, October 28, 2019

Pest Control and Waste Management Essay Example for Free

Pest Control and Waste Management Essay Pests cause a lot of destruction to the crops. Even though there are lots of chemical pest controls available to help reduce or remove the presence of these destructive pests, the non-chemical pest control is the most reliable and safest form of pest control. One of the most destructive pests that are encountered by many farmers is the beetle. Non-chemical pest control can be done in many different ways like applying balanced fertilizer to keep the crops and soil healthy and free from beetles, removing weeds from that may surround the crops, and using milky spore powder when dealing with Japanese beetles. In addition with these, according to HGTV, â€Å"planting pest-resistant species that contains insecticide in nature can also help in getting rid of these pests(Non-Chemical Pest Control, 2006). † The production of a healthy and productive crop system all depends on the supervision of the farmer itself. Nevertheless, non-chemical pest control is all about prevention. I will not be in opposition to the idea of having hazardous waste landfill, waste treatment plant, deep-injection well, or incinerator in our community. The waste of a community grows enormously as time passes by. These wastes can affect the health and livelihood of a community. The presence of hazardous waste landfill, waste treatment plant, deep-injection well, or incinerator in a certain community reduce the waste that may cause pollution and other negative effects on the residents of a certain community. The hazardous waste landfill keeps the hazardous waste from going into the soil and eventually to our body. Incineration is only an alternative to land filling. Incineration is not a very good way of waste reduction because it produces toxic air pollutants that can even cause a great problem to the health of the community. These systems are of great help in the reduction of waste although it is inevitable that wrong management of these waste management system may always lead to an unlikely consequences like the pollution that can be brought about by incineration.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Side Effects of Antidepressants Essay -- Medical Depression Psychology

Side Effects of Antidepressants Side effects have played a significant role in the development of SSRI’s. The first drug, iproniazid, was developed to fight tuberculosis in the early 1950's, and had a noticeable side effect on mood elevation. Soon it was known as a "happy drug". This drug immediately gained attention from physicians and depression researchers. At that time the only drug on the market for depression was opium, which was a highly addictive substance (Turkington 49-50). Ten years of specific drug research to identify different models of nerve transmissions and tailoring chemicals to affect these processes resulted in the development of Prozac (Turkington,61). "Eli Lilly and Co.'s (Prozac's manufacturer) official product information acknowledges that tremors alone occur in 10% of patients on Prozac. Any side effect occurring in 1% or more of patients is acknowledged as "frequent" by the pharmaceutical industry (Glenmullen). Some of these side effects that have been reported are feelings of jitteriness, sleep problems "tardive dyskinesia," and "sexual dysfunction". Other side effects from Prozac include weight gain, tiredness, increased appetite, feeling weak, sore throat, and trouble with concentration (Smith). Side effects of antidepressants fall in three different categories: sedation; dry mouth, blurry vision, constipation, urinary problems, increased heart rate, and memory problems; and dizziness on standing up, orthostatic hypotension. Those that interfere with dopamine, such as Effexor and Asendin, may produce movement disorders and endocrine system changes. Blocking serotonin may create stomach problems, insomnia, and anxiety. The newer drug... ...r, and it's been great." References Boyles, S. (2005). Mixed results on antidepressants and suicide. Web MD. News Feb, 18. Janicak, P. G.,& Davis, J.M. (2001). Principles and practice of psychopharmacotherapy (3rd ed.). New York: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins. Glenmullen, J. (2000). Prozac: pro and Con,WebMD Feature June,2. Mason, S. E. (2002). Prozac and crime: Who is the victim? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry,72(3)445-455. Rivas-Vazquez, R. A., & Blais, M.A. (2000). Sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant treatment. Professional Psychology: Research and practice,31(6)641-651. Smith, M. (2003). Medication for bipolar depression. Approved WebMD Medical News December, 29. Turkington, C.A., & Kaplan, E.F. (1994). Making the prozac decision: Your guide to antidepressants. Los Angeles: Lowell House.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Reasons And Effects Of Climate Change Environmental Sciences Essay

One of the most define issue of our epoch is planetary clime alteration. It is the biggest menace to the hereafter of life on Earth. Rising mean temperature, high tide degrees, ocean salt and sourness ( pH ) , air current forms and utmost conditions events including drouths, heavy precipitation, heat moving ridges and the strength of tropical cyclones like hurricanes and typhoons are some utmost conditions events as a consequence of clime alteration. So, clime alteration confronts humanity arguably with the most serious challenge that it has of all time faced. The more it is studied it shows that there are some elements of this serious menace. These elements need to be understood to cut down these alterations and do things slower as the concluding result will be ‘Catastrophe ‘ due to these alterations. 2. What Is Climate? Climate is the long term prevalent conditions conditions of an country. The general or mean upwind conditions of a certain part including temperature, rainfall, and air current is called clime. 3. What is Climate alteration? Climate alteration is a long term alteration in the statistical distribution of conditions forms over periods of that scope from decennaries to 1000000s of old ages. The alteration may be in the mean conditions conditions or a alteration in the distribution of conditions events with regard with an norm. These alterations may be limited to a specific part or may happen universe broad. The definition of clime alteration given in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered best as it is â€Å" A alteration of clime which is attributed straight or indirectly to human activity that alters the planetary composing of planetary ambiance and which is in add-on to natural clime variableness observed over comparable clip periods. † Any sort of alteration has a direct consequence and clime alteration is no different. It affects human civilisation. But the alterations we talk about are planetary and different. These alterations will convey calamity might stop human civilisation. The American HeritageA ® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition Copyright 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Unabridged Based on the Random House Dictionary, A © Random House, Inc. 2010. 4. Reason of clime alteration: Change in planetary clime has some peculiar grounds. The chief ground of planetary clime alteration is addition of Carbon gases in the ambiance. a ) Greenhouse consequence: Certain gases in the ambiance behave like the glass on a green house, leting sunshine to come in, but barricading heat from get awaying. During twenty-four hours earth becomes hot as it absolves heat and at dark clip it releases heat. But some C gases block the heat and Earth can non let go of heat usually. So, our Earth becomes hotter and temperature rises which causes alteration in clime. B ) Addition in emanation of Carbon gases: Carbon gases are heat shriving, such as CO2. Increase of C gases in the ambiance makes earth hotter than normal. So, inordinate emanation of Carbon gases cause rise of temperature in the environment which is one of the major ground of clime alteration. degree Celsius ) Deforestation: Deforestation is one of the major causes of planetary clime alteration. Cuting trees is non good for environment as tree consumes CO2from the environment. Deforestation does non assist to cut down C gases from the environment. vitamin D ) Volcanic eruption: Volcanic eruption disposes dozenss of C gases in the ambiance which is largely responsible for the addition of planetary temperature. vitamin E ) Massive population growing: Massive population growing is an indirect cause of clime alteration. Peoples cuts tree, uses fossil fuel and does many other things to carry through their demands. These activities are non good for environment. So the addition in population agencies addition in the rate of clime alteration. degree Fahrenheit ) Dependence on fossil fuel: Peoples of the Earth are extremely dependent on fossil fuel. As they have really limited resource on alternate energy beginning they largely use fossil fuel as energy beginning. But fossil fuel is a really high beginning of emanation of Carbon gases. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) , 2001. â€Å" Working Group I Third Assessment Report. † Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. 881 pp. National Academy of Sciences ( NAS ) . 2001. â€Å" Climate Change Science: An Analysis of Some Key Questions. â€Å" National Academies Press. 42 pp. Cynthia Rosenzweig, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) William Solecki, Hunter College, City University of New York hypertext transfer protocol: // ) 5. Effectss of clime alteration: Climate alteration has terrible consequence on humanity and life on Earth. Day by twenty-four hours our Earth is altering and it ‘s acquiring a difficult topographic point to populate on. Climate alteration is the ground for assorted natural catastrophes of recent clip. It has made the whole environment system unpredictable. a ) Average temperature rise: As a consequence of clime alteration the mean temperature of the Earth has increased. It has made the environment inconsistent and the Earth ‘s season circle has collapsed due to this ground. 1990 was the warmest decennary in last 1000 twelvemonth and in this decennary temperature increased about at consecutive graph. B ) High tide: As a consequence of temperature rise ice of south and North Pole will be melted fast and the H2O will eventually make the ocean. So, the sea degree will lift significantly and high tides will go a new job. Coastal civilisations like SriLanka, Maldives and Fiji will be destroyed. Rising sea degree will hold sever consequence on states like Bangladesh, Australia, India, Indonesia as most of their land will travel under H2O. degree Celsius ) Increase in ocean salt and sourness: Scientists have found oceans are able to shrive some of the extra CO2 released by human activity. So the more CO2 in the ambiance means the more in the oceans. This will increase the salt and sourness of sea H2O. Research show that some of the sea H2O ‘s Salinity and sourness will increase approximately 30 % after the terminal of twenty-first century. vitamin D ) Extreme conditions events: Global clime alteration will convey utmost conditions events like ‘Super Storm ‘ . These storms will hold air currents velocity of more than 200 stat mi and will destruct anything at its manner. Global heating will engender many ace storms. vitamin E ) Massive tropical cyclone: Climate alteration will increase the denseness of tropical cyclone. These cyclones are monolithic and destructive. Hurricane Katrina is the worst possible illustration of that in recent clip. Economic harm due to Katrina was 81 billion USD and estimated recovery needs more than 200 billion USD. Sometimes tropical cyclone brings high tide and boom storm. ‘Abdu'l-Baha , from a Tablet translated from Persian, quoted in a memoranda on â€Å" Gaia and Nature, † to the Universal House of Justice from its Research Department of the Baha'i World Centre, 8 June 1992. See World Commission on Environment and Development ( Brundtland Commission ) , Our Common Future ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987 ) . Bouma-Prediger, Steven, For the Beauty of the Earth ( Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001 ) P 6. International jurisprudence to cut down clime alteration: A political understanding such as the Copenhagen Accord may be considered as a measure frontward if it is taken earnestly by those who want to continue with its executing. The authorization of such understanding will basically depend on whether its executing can be effected through political force per unit area from Governments, civil society. There are two ways the Accord could assist the clime treatments to predate in 2010: a ) It could function as an input to the AWGs. During treatments, the working groups could mention to the papers and the determinations agreed by Heads of State. B ) The Accord could go the karyon of a new international clime policy program to develop clime policy outside the UNFCCC with a limited figure of states back uping it and working under the commissariats of the papers. With respect to its contents, the chief elements of the Copenhagen Accord are that: a ) Countries officially commit to the 2 degree mark but it neither translates this figure into GHG emanations ( including a peak twelvemonth ) nor describes processs for attempt sharing. B ) By the terminal of January 2010, Appendix I to the Accord will consist of economy-wide marks for 2020 pledged voluntarily by developed states through a bottom up procedure. Developed states can perpetrate to implement separately or jointly quantified emanation lessening marks, to be Measured, Reported and Verified ( MRVed ) based on guidelines bing under the UNFCCC. Following the analysis of Egenhofer and Georgiev ( 2009 ) , the most determined upper bound of the pledges for 2020 submitted before Copenhagen, combined with the executing of the national programs in China and India, would convey the Earth towards a 3.2A °C addition by 2100 at best. C ) Improvement of actions in developing states will be supported instantly through new and extra, predictable and sufficient beginnings of support. To this terminal the corporate committedness of developed states is nearing US $ 30 billion for the period between 2010-2012, turning to US $ 100 billion a twelvemonth in 2020 with balanced portion between version and extenuation. Thereby, for the first clip promise to a end of reciprocally mobilise is set and could let go of the fiscal dead end giving farther drift to the betterment of C markets. It is normally stated that the Copenhagen Green Climate Fund shall be well-known to back up undertakings, coders, policy and other actions in increasing states related to betterment. A high degree panel will be established to analyze the part of the likely beginnings of net incomes. vitamin D ) A Technology system shall be established by the understanding, even though no inside informations of this system or thoughts behind the term have been provided. vitamin E ) The comparative importance of, every bit good as interaction between, these three paths will merely go clear over the following months, peculiarly in February when it will go evident which Parties have authorized the understanding. On the other manus, even if all of the chief emitters support the chief consequence of COP 15, the Copenhagen understanding, there will still be the demand for extra treatment. There are, for illustration, many more chances for set uping a more sustainable international betterment class, some of which have been identified by the AWG-LCA and the AWG-KP, that are non recognized in the Copenhagen understanding. degree Fahrenheits ) Low C conveyance systems require an included attack that lessening distances traveled prioritizes low-carbon manners and decreases the carbon-emissions of vehicles. For this ground, engineering is non limited to the energy effectivity of vehicles and bio-fuels but refers to power efficient conveyance systems as a whole, on top of any size from the local to the national. Technology Transfer under the UNFCCC is treated every bit supplying the capableness to invent and use engineerings. It is hence in theory well-matched to the conveyance system position and a engineering mechanism should provide capacity constructing sing all manners of sustainable conveyance. g ) The Copenhagen understanding endorses the significance of C markets as a agency to acquire emanation cut down but it does non propose the creative activity of a sector crediting system. In rule, Parties agree to extra work with the instrument but the hereafter of the Kyoto Protocol is still dubious and the treatments of the AWG-KP in Copenhagen resulted in advancement. The same applies to likely developments of the CDM under the AWG-KP, which could function to do the system more suited for undertakings in the conveyance sector. This would be helpful for conveyance as to day of the month there are few CDM conveyance related undertakings. Several recommendations have been developed for ways in which barriers to the greater engagement of the conveyance sector in the CDM flexible system could be overcome. Egenhofer, Christian and Georgiev, Anton ( 2009 ) : The Copenhagen Accord – A first pang at decoding the deductions for the EU. CEPTS Commentary, 25 December 2009. Niklas, Michiel Schaeffer, Claudine Chen, Bill Hare, Katja Eisbrenner, Markus Hagemann, Christian Ellermann ( 2009 ) , Copenhagen Climate Deal – How to Close the Gap, Briefing paper, Ecofys & A ; Climate Analytics, 15 December H ) UNFCCC adopts a jurisprudence of â€Å" common but differentiated undertakings. † The parties fixed that: * The biggest portion of historical and modern planetary emanations of nursery gases originated in developed states ; * Per capita emanations in developing states are still relatively low ; * The portion of planetary emanations arising in developing states will raise to acquire together societal and development necessities. 7. Recommendation: * International: Require states to information on national schemes in the field of conveyance through their National substructure. Construct up a sector attack for international conveyance. Implement a sector halt working in a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action. Provide Parties with ordinance for conveyance NAMA. Develop control for Programmed of Activity ( PoA ) in the conveyance sector. Develop attacks for even transport baselines under the CDM Develop counsel for how both public and private sector conveyance Stakeholders can entree money for accommodation For a more elaborate treatment of conveyance NAMAs see Dalkmann, H. , Sakamoto, K. , Binsted, A. and Avery, K. ( 2009b ) Schemes to convey land conveyance into the clime alteration dialogues. Discussion Paper. Available from possible conveyance NAMA commissioned by the ADB and IDB. * National: put sector emanation lessening end on a national degree Particular conveyance Nationally Appropriate betterment Action must be developed specially in states that have a immense portion of emanations from the conveyance sector, otherwise who are likely to in the coming old ages? Conduct pilot undertakings to demo climate proofing of conveyance systems, largely in metropoliss. Submit indexs for farther combination of the conveyance sector into National Adaptation policy. 8. Decision: So what ‘s following? The challenge that climate alteration airss to mankind requires the international society to maintain on pressing frontward. The sum of options, options and bracketed text in bill of exchange AWG paperss demonstrates the big sum of negociating work that still needs to be done. It is besides likely that even if an understanding under the UNFCCC could be reached in 2010, there will still be a batch work needed to place the implementing necessities by 2012. In a procedure presently characterized by so much uncertainness, two things are clear – 2009 saw a major addition in the repute of the conveyance sector in the clime alteration argument, and the energy must be maintained to do certain that the nexus between conveyance and clime policy is strengthened in 2010.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

As You Like It By William Shakespeare Essay

1. As you like it is full of characters pretending to be someone other than themselves. To what degree are the characters aware that they are role-playing? Does their acting have serious consequences, or is it merely a game. In the text as you like it by William Shakespeare many characters have alter egos in whom they use to influence and associate themselves with other characters. The two main characters that are pretending to be someone other than themselves are Celia and Rosalind. In act 1 of the text Rosalind is banished from the court of the duke and decides to seek upon her father in the forest of Arden. Rosalind and Celia decide to disguise themselves, Celia as a country girl named Aliena and Rosalind as a young man named Ganymede. Rosalind and Celia are unaware of the consequences that occur from having disguises. A consequence of Rosalind’s male disguise as Ganymede is that she makes Phebe, a female shepherdess in the forest of Arden fall in love with her. This disturbs the natural order in which Phebe is in love with a fellow shepherd Silvius. Rosalind’s gender swapping has created a consequence in she has made a woman fall in love with her when she is in love with Orlando. In the end Phebe goes back to Silvius and the consequence of Rosalind’s role-playing is resolved. The role-playing in the text does have effects on the other characters but Rosalind does end up marrying Orlando, Celia ends up marrying Oliver and Phebe ends up marrying Silvius. So the long-term consequences of Celia and Rosalind’s role-playing are miniscule only making the text more intricate and interesting for readers. In conclusion although characters in the text as you like it do pretend to be someone else, the consequences add to detail in the text and have have no serious consequences.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

How the Macbeth Witches Drive the Plays Plot

How the Macbeth Witches Drive the Play's Plot To say that the witches in William Shakespeares Macbeth play crucial roles in the drama would be an understatement. Without the witches, there would simply be no story to tell, as they move the plot.   The Five Predictions of the Macbeth Witches During the play, the Macbeth witches make five key predictions: Macbeth will become Thane of Cawdor.Banquo’s children will become kings.They advise Macbeth to â€Å"beware Macduff.†Macbeth cannot be harmed by anyone â€Å"of woman born.†Macbeth cannot be beaten until â€Å"Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane shall come.† Four of these predictions are realized during the action, but one is not. Although Banquo’s children do not become kings during the course of the play, they do escape murder and could return at some point in the future. At the end of the play, it is left for the audience members to decide whether they believe the Macbeth witches.   Although the witches appear to have great skill at prophesying, its not certain whether their prophecies are preordained.  If not, do they simply encourage Macbeth to become active in constructing his own fate? It is perhaps part of Macbeth’s character to shape his life according to the predictions- whereas Banquo does not. This might explain why the only prophecy not realized by the end of the play relates directly to Banquo and cannot be shaped by Macbeth (although Macbeth would also have little control over the â€Å"Great Birnam Wood† prediction). The Macbeth Witches Influence The witches in Macbeth are important because they provide Macbeth’s call to action. The witches prophesies also affect Lady Macbeth, albeit indirectly when Macbeth writes his wife about seeing the weird sisters, as he calls them. After reading his letter, shes ready right away to plot to murder the king and worries her husband will be too full o  th milk of human kindness to commit such an act. Although he doesnt think he can do such a thing, Lady  Macbeth  has no question in her mind that they would succeed. Her ambition steels him. Thus, the witches influence on Lady Macbeth only increases their effect on Macbeth himself- and, by extension, the entire plot of the play. The Macbeth witches provide the dynamism that has made  Macbeth  one of Shakespeare’s most popular and intense  plays. How Shakespeare Made the Witches Stand Out   Shakespeare  used a number of devices to create a sense of otherness and malevolence for the  Macbeth  witches. For example, the witches speak in rhyming couplets, which distinguishes them from all other characters. This poetic device  has made their lines among the plays most memorable. Also, the Macbeth witches are said to have beards, making them difficult to identify as either gender. Last, they are always accompanied by storms and bad weather. Collectively, these traits give them an otherworldly cast. Shakespeares Age-Old Question By writing the Macbeth witches as he did, Shakespeare is asking an age-old question: Are our lives already mapped out for us, or do we have a hand in what happens? At the end of the play, the audience is forced to consider the extent to which the characters have control over their own lives. The debate over free will versus Gods preordained plan for humanity has been debated for centuries and continues to be debated today.

Monday, October 21, 2019

buy custom Health Care Issues and Cultural Effects essay

buy custom Health Care Issues and Cultural Effects essay Research on to the health disparities has shown that, patients who receive culturally sensitive care show an increased adherence to medical advice and report higher satisfaction with the services. Therefore, with the increased growth in the cultural diversity and related health disparities in society, the rise in academic interest in examining the interrelationship between health and culture has also increased. This has led to the realization of the benefits of cultural competency program. The cultural competency training program produces measurable changes in the knowledge and skills of the health practitioners (Khanna, Cheyney, Engle, 2009, p. 886). Although the debate still continues on its effectiveness, a general agreement among the scholars is that, it improves the patient-provider communication, and in the long term, it improves on the patient satisfaction and compliance. This has led to many health care organizations, medical schools and providers integrating the cultural competency training into their training programs or curricula. In one study conducted on the 43 healthcare professionals, participants indicated an enhanced understanding of the healthcare experiences of patients with diverse backgrounds. This study involved health care providers and health administrators for a four (4) hour cultural competency workshop. In addition to the enhanced understanding of health care experiences these health care professionals, reported improvement in their cross-cu ltural working skills (Khanna, Cheyney, Engle, 2009, p. 886). According to them, the post then pre method of evaluation used is reliable, innovative, and time-saving. According to them, these training programs should be implemented so as to inform the health care providers on the role of culture in service delivery. Factors like, ethnic medical belefs, use of folk medicine, health beliefs and worldview, cultural values and norms influence the offering and perception of the services. In addition, gender and religion also play a vital role. The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) advocates for the inclusion of the cultural and linguistic competency training and assessment protocols in health care systems (Khanna, Cheyney, Engle, 2009, p. 887). The Office of Minority Health has been on the forefront in advocating for the National Standards for culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in the Health Care Systems. These standards take into account the social context and interaction and thus, form the benchmarks in the provision of the competent services to patients from all cultural backgrounds. This arises from the fac t that, the cultural characteristics of the patient and the health care provider influences the manner in which different people seek, access, and utilize these services (Khanna, Cheyney, Engle, 2009, pp. 887-888). The study used post then pre method to evaluate the outcomes of the training. In a typical pre then post evaluation, participants subject themselves to a set of questions before and after the training program. Post then pre method helps in controlling response shift bias got in the traditional pre then post method. In the post then pre method, gauging of the respondents perceptions occur at the end of training. This reduces the respondents perspective on the construct measured between pre-test and post-test situation. In addition, use of the post then pre reduces the problems of over and ideal reporting associated with pre then post reporting (Khanna, Cheyney, Engle, 2009, p. 889). The limitation of this evaluation method is the inability recall knowledge and skills before the instruction accurately. The social desire of the respondents to fulffill the expectations of the training programs also manifests itself among the respondents. At the end of training, all participants had a ch oice of completing a 29-item Cultural Competency Assessment (CCA). Of the sixty that had originally joined the training, only forty-three (n=43) completed the test without errors. The CCA developed reflected on intercultural and intra-cultural diversity. It involved 3 parts- demographic data (5 items), knowledge (19 items) and skills (5 items). The results indicated that the participants indicated a positive change in their knowledge and skills in the cross-cultural provision of health care. They acquired a more nuanced understanding of individual terms associated with culture, race and ethnicity. They also self-reported improvements in the role of cultural factors in the patient-provider communication, and importance of nonverbal clues in patient-provider interaction. These results indicated the need to raise awareness regarding the importance of cultural learning. The health beliefs and cultural healing practices involvement in the collection of the case histories are essential. This helps in the conducting of the clinical examinations and development of culturally based care plans with the patients from diverse cultural backgrounds (Khanna, Cheyney, Engle, 2009, p. 890). This study indicated that, for cultural competency to be successful, it needs to go beyond the racial and ethnic differences. It should incorporate issues pertaining to sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, health insurance status and type/ timing of care in the provision of health care services. It is also a dynamic process rather than 1-time, structured training endeavor lending itself to rigorous, quantitative analysis. It should be expanded to include multiple markers of differences (Khanna, Cheyney, Engle, 2009, p. 891). Buy custom Health Care Issues and Cultural Effects essay

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Phrasal Verbs and Phrasal Nouns

Phrasal Verbs and Phrasal Nouns Phrasal Verbs and Phrasal Nouns Phrasal Verbs and Phrasal Nouns By Mark Nichol A phrasal verb is a verb consisting of two or more words- a verb and (usually) a preposition or a particle- that, when combined, describe an action. When formed into a closed or hyphenated compound, however, a phrasal verb is transformed into a phrasal noun, which can, alternatively, be employed as an adjective. This post explains the distinction, with examples. Forming Phrasal Verbs Take just about any basic verb, and it can likely be paired with one or more words to form a phrasal verb. (A phrasal verb is also called a compound verb, or a prepositional verb or a particle verb, depending on the function of the word following the verb, along with other names.) Consider walk, for example. One can walk in a line, out a door, through a tunnel, up a flight of stairs, down a street, on a rug, near a park, by a shop, off a cliff, or away from a fight. In many cases, however, a writer can name the action by combining the verb and the preposition or particle into a compound. Walk-in, for example, describes someone who arrives at a location without an appointment, or it serves as a truncation of â€Å"walk-in refrigerator† or functions as an adjective in â€Å"walk-in closet† or â€Å"walk-in apartment.† A walkout, by contrast, is a labor strike or an action in which a number of people leave a meeting or a location to express disapproval. (Notice the inconsistency of treatment; the former word is hyphenated, while the latter is closed.) A walk-through is an inspection or a rehearsal, and a walk-up is a building with no elevator to the upper floors. (As an adjective, the word might refer to a window where a customer can be served without entering a business location.) â€Å"Walk down† can also refer to an act of walking to help oneself recover from illness or poisoning or to wear someone down to exhaustion (â€Å"wear down† is also a phrasal verb), but- so far, at least- English-language speakers and writers have not felt a need for a corresponding phrasal noun. (That is the case with a couple of other phrasal verbs in this list.) But a walk-on is a small theatrical role (from the fact that such parts often involve an actor simply walking onstage, perhaps to deliver a message to a main character, for example) or a person who attempts to join an athletic team without an invitation or a scholarship offer. Walk-off, meanwhile, describes a final winning play in a baseball game. Note that with any of the phrasal verbs listed, at best, a sentence’s meaning will differ if the preposition or particle is omitted; at worst, it won’t make sense. One can, for example, walk a line, but that means something different than a reference to walking in a line, while â€Å"walk a door† is meaningless. However, some phrasal verbs are redundant, though they are often used colloquially. Such phrases, which often unnecessarily pair a verb with up or down, include â€Å"climb up,† â€Å"meet up,† â€Å"rest up,† â€Å"sit down,† â€Å"stand up,† and â€Å"write down.† (One may climb down, but descend is a better alternative for that phrase.) Note, though, that some of these redundant phrases can be legitimately repurposed as phrasal nouns or adjectives when hyphenated. For example, meet-up is an informal synonym for gathering, and a sit-down is a work stoppage or protest or a meeting convened to resolve a conflict or problem. (As an adjective, the term also pertains to a meal or a restaurant at which one is seated.) Meanwhile, a stand-up comic is one who performs while standing, though the term may also informally denote the quality of integrity (â€Å"He’s a real stand-up guy†) or simply refer to something literally upright. The term alone can also refer to the entertainment form or a television broadcast with a similar setup- there’s another phrasal verb transformed into a compound verb- or to the performer. â€Å"Write down† does not have a corresponding noun. However, the words write and up, though they do not form a phrasal verb (â€Å"write it up† comes close), are used, linked with a hyphen, to describe a report, review, or summary, as in â€Å"Did you see the write-up about the game in today’s paper?† Numerous other examples exist. Note, however, that as in the case of walk-in and walkout, treatment of two words with a common verb may differ: One performs a turnaround but comes up with a work-around. A blow-up is not the same as a blowout, and the compounds are not styled the same. And though hand-down is not (yet) a word- it might someday be coined to describe an edict or pronouncement- a hand-me-down is something passed on (such as an article of clothing given to a child when an older sibling outgrows it). When contemplating using a phrasal noun (or a phrasal adjective), first, use a dictionary to determine 1) whether the term exists and 2) whether the phrasal noun is hyphenated or closed. (And double-check that the adjectival form is the same as the phrasal noun. Exceptions exist, including the noun/adjective pairs castoff/cast-off and takeout/take-out.) For example, when one calls out, it is a callout, but when one logs in, it is (usually) a log-in. (Login is also employed; the correct form is the one that appears in the dictionary or style guide you consult.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Grammar Test 1Cannot or Can Not?10 Types of Hyphenation Errors

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Deontological Ethical Theory Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Deontological Ethical Theory - Essay Example The deontological ethical theory has its own weakness. For example, t makes room for using logical reasoning in determining what is right (Hoy, 2005). Once this is done, interpretation of the rules becomes a very difficult thing to do since everyone has their own discretion within which the rules are explained. In such a situation, it becomes very difficult to have a single modality under which ethics are applied.Consequentiality is another ethical view point that can be applied in the use of technology. In the premise of this ethical theory, there is the need to strive to increase utility. The strength with this is that the greater good of most people is sought instead of the subjective needs of a few people. This way, ethics are enforced because workers are made to look for the interest of other external stakeholders.What this theory lacks however is the fact that it fails to set the parameter as to who should be responsible for evaluating the consequences that affected people suff er. As a result, even though there is quest to satisfy people’s needs and values, the willpower to do this can be missing. Within the modern technological society, deontology can be said to hold more easily than consequentiality. This is because companies seem less concerned about the consequences of their actions on the public. Rather, they only focus on their profits. It is not surprising that global warming continues to be alarming as the number of technological companies continues to increase.

Opinion Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Opinion Paper - Essay Example To me, the idea seems to be okay, and I am for the increment in the reimbursements dues to the reasons discussed below. One of the reasons that I see it appropriate for the reimbursements to be increased is to enable both nurses and doctors to acquire the relevant medications and equipments to serve the large numbers of patients. The increase will result in better services being given by the physicians. Increasing the reimbursements may also lead to an increase in the participation of the physicians and the patients access to Medicaid (Bryan, 2004). The reason I prospect this is because most of the physicians have made it clear that caring for those patients who use Medicaid would become an important part of their mission and thereby a campaign for the increment must be carried out. Another reason for the reimbursement increase is to reduce the struggle that the doctors experience while giving their services to the Medicaid population and at the same time keeping their practices financially viable (Herbert, 2012). The main reason why I say this is because, I have had the chance to interact with some nurses and one of them put it clear to me that, they were in a position of accepting more Medicaid patients if they were in a position to afford all what they required finances and facilities and this usually meant an increase in the reimbursements was necessary. To conclude, it is important for the physicians and the nurses to have a clear understanding of the healthcare financial aspects so that they help their clients in understanding the meaning of increasing the existed reimbursements. The financial knowledge affects the nursing care of patients in the health care settings in that, they will have hands-on information on how their funds are used and how an increase in their reimbursements will improve the services offered to them at the hospitals. The responsibility of keeping

Friday, October 18, 2019

Evidence based practices Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 1

Evidence based practices - Research Paper Example workers concerned in applicant dispensation have been furloughed habitually, and in March, 2009, the Town Council permitted a three-month hiring freeze (Nostrand, 2007). Hence, the LAPD, as well as other law enforcement agencies, can undoubtedly profit from evidence-based approaches to assessing recruitment programs along with reformation the application process. Using the Los Angeles Police Department and city administrative data from financial years 2007 and 2008, this paper will estimate impacts, in line with applicant numbers, for LAPD’s employment efforts and will revise a model for prioritizing candidates established by Lim et al. (2009). Recruitment and maintenance are long-lasting worries for large urban law enforcement agencies (Lim, 2009). Over much of the last couple of years, police departments from San Diego to New York City have gone through considerable difficulty in finding and maintaining police officers. Even though, the number of police officers countrywide increased by 3.4% between 2000 and 2004 employment did not keep pace with population increase and was well underneath the rate of law enforcement development in the 90s. In addition, 20 out of the 50 largest local police groups in the country decreased in size between 2000 and 2004, in some departments by as high as 10 to 15% (Matthies, 2011). The countrywide economic recession, which started late in 2007, has attested to be a double-edged knife for law enforcement employment. Many candidates are applying for the job, but the funds for hiring and recruiting have been cut. Sheriff and Police departments around the nation have reported large increases i n the number of candidates, as is the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). However, financial woes brought on by the economic recession are stopping agencies from taking advantage of the larger applicant pools. A high number of the applications have cancelled due to the lack of available finances to pay the cadets’ incomes. Nowhere else

Business and Economic Forecasting Research Paper

Business and Economic Forecasting - Research Paper Example ant to note here that increase in wage rates will also results in increase in the spending power of the consumers and consumers will be willing to pay more for the products, thus it can have some positive effect on the economy. On the other hand the increase in the transportation costs will have double fold negative impact on the economy as the consumers will have to also bear the increased in the transportation costs. Hence, there can be different economic scenarios during different economic times. For instance, during the economic boom the increase in wage rates will not have strong negative impact on the economy, as the people will be ready to pay more for the products. However, the increase in the transportation costs will negatively influence the economy. But the increase in wages will have greater overall effect on the economy. On the other hand during recession the increase in the wages will have less positive and more negative impact, as still people will be more inclined towards saving and hence will be reluctant to pay more for the products. Similarly the increase in the transportation costs will have negative influence on the economy. Hence, it can be said that the wages will have more effect on the state of the economy in different time periods. So the slope value of wages will be high as compared to that of the transportation costs in the multiple regression formula (Hoshmand, 2009). During regression analysis and evaluating regression models it is important to check that whether the regression model is efficient or not. For this purpose different tests and methods are used by the researchers. One method used in this regard is the R2 test. The researchers use The R2 test in order to check whether the forecasted values are closely related and associated with the original values or not. This means that the high value of R2 depicts that there are less or few errors and residuals in the regression model. If the value of R2 is closer to one it means that

Thursday, October 17, 2019

9-3b LOGISTIC CASE STUDY Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

9-3b LOGISTIC - Case Study Example roduction, it is on demand, 100’s of request changes for every day, low carbon foot shaped impression and waste finally it has no base request amounts (, 2015). In a mechanical setting, it can possibly change packaging design, stock management, and has the ability to react quickly to evolving the design, brand administration, and regulatory requirements. In 2008, various business visionaries from different foundations met up with a perspective to exploring this potential. They set up Mediaware Digital LTD that gave business provision of reconfiguring their inventory network and displaying the capacity to upgrade effectiveness and responsiveness through new and dynamic creative methodologies. This model of mediaware determined the packaging as an affair, which came out to be on demand as a procedure that clients got to a virtual system for packaging via an exceptional interface (, 2015). Digital technology has been known to eliminate the surplus stock and overruns, reduces waste, enhances budget, reduces headcount, spares space and eliminates pre-processes like plate generation. The following are improvements to the supply chain; make for ordering zero inventory levels and model, the original factors for safety, product incapability, make sales to make exact approach towards the developed products, the product mix, the programs that foster sustainability, reduction of the freight together with storage costs (, 2015). Mediaware has collaborated with Xerox equipment manufacturing to produce Xerox Gallop digital packaging with digital packaging with customized workflows. Its framework could acknowledge orders through a scope of computerized interfaces, print in numerous dialects, rapidly switch dialects and deliver small batches with significant purchaser information. This decreases least request quantities. Using its modified work process, Mediaware integrated with supply chain to convey what was required when required, and exact amount

Annotated Bibliography Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Annotated Bibliography - Assignment Example The article was published in the last two years showing that it is current thus more applicable to the current situation. The article applied quantitative research methods in collecting primary data thereby making the results and conclusions drawn more relevant as they were based on a study of real college students. The research uses references that are more than 2 decades old in its theoretical model and theoretical framework chapters thereby bringing into question its reliability. This is, however, balanced out in the discussion chapter where more current research have been used extensively, such that a majority were published in the last 10 years and only two references were published in the last 22 years. The fact that the article is published in a journal lends credence to its reliability as journals have a reputation for only printing peer reviewed articles that have been subjected to extensive checks and reviews. This is a 13 page article, published in 2012, that addresses the subject of stress and strain among college students and how they cope. The article opens up by defining relevant and providing an overview of the article presentation. It then presents the thesis statement – effectiveness of coping mechanism in managing academic stress by the research subjects – and provides background information on stress among college students and how they cope. The literature review establishes that stress is common among college students, especially academic stress. The research employs a quantitative research approach with questionnaires as the data collection tool. The collected data was then used to either approve or disapprove the hypotheses. The study population was 120 college freshmen who included both males and females. The research also applied an experimental approach as it had a test group and a control group. The collected empirical data was then subjected to statistical analysis that determined trends and

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

9-3b LOGISTIC CASE STUDY Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

9-3b LOGISTIC - Case Study Example roduction, it is on demand, 100’s of request changes for every day, low carbon foot shaped impression and waste finally it has no base request amounts (, 2015). In a mechanical setting, it can possibly change packaging design, stock management, and has the ability to react quickly to evolving the design, brand administration, and regulatory requirements. In 2008, various business visionaries from different foundations met up with a perspective to exploring this potential. They set up Mediaware Digital LTD that gave business provision of reconfiguring their inventory network and displaying the capacity to upgrade effectiveness and responsiveness through new and dynamic creative methodologies. This model of mediaware determined the packaging as an affair, which came out to be on demand as a procedure that clients got to a virtual system for packaging via an exceptional interface (, 2015). Digital technology has been known to eliminate the surplus stock and overruns, reduces waste, enhances budget, reduces headcount, spares space and eliminates pre-processes like plate generation. The following are improvements to the supply chain; make for ordering zero inventory levels and model, the original factors for safety, product incapability, make sales to make exact approach towards the developed products, the product mix, the programs that foster sustainability, reduction of the freight together with storage costs (, 2015). Mediaware has collaborated with Xerox equipment manufacturing to produce Xerox Gallop digital packaging with digital packaging with customized workflows. Its framework could acknowledge orders through a scope of computerized interfaces, print in numerous dialects, rapidly switch dialects and deliver small batches with significant purchaser information. This decreases least request quantities. Using its modified work process, Mediaware integrated with supply chain to convey what was required when required, and exact amount

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Grant proposal Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Grant - Research Proposal Example In many instances, these convicted felons are injured while in correctional facilities and due to the lack of funds due to their poor backgrounds, LITTLE Engineers aim at improving the quality of life of such students in correspondence to CCPH aims by restoring their health. The drastic positive shift of this technology influences business, society, and government. We plan to collaborate with other organizations like the Federal Bonding Program, Work Opportunity Tax Credit, and Workforce Investment Act (WIA) that look into the welfare of such students including the University of Houston Graduate College, which will further the skills of the convicted felons. METHODS: The Work Opportunity Tax Credit and Federal Bonding Program help us manage our foundation with the local Houston community center. A family oriented approach incorporated in the rehabilitation process of the convicted felons. As a result, our program has a limited number of individuals, which leaves the convicted felons feeling like a family and embrace the new technologies that build their self-esteem and restores their health. Moreover, the training curriculum incorporated in the program is healthy in terms of preventing the felons from engaging in illegal activities. We have an on-the-job-training environment for technology, information, and training for customer skills. OBJECTIVE: In Houston, the number of convicted felons is rising and is affecting the development of Houston and other major Texas cities. There are programs offered by Houston and Texas governments, but they are not able to accommodate the rising numbers of convicted felons. As a result, our program plans to reach out to 100 students and give them a chance to reach their dreams by restoring their lives and that of their other convicts. The collaborative effort of employees and staff personnel has seen the convicts benefit from the information and skills impacted and offered by LITTLE Engineers. These convicts are the future lead ers and as an organization, we have seen the need to advocate for promoting hard work, commitment, and embracing of new technology in the society. The work ethic and dedication they learn from LITTLE Engineers will help them learn and utilize the knowledge for the rest of their lives. As a result, the lives of both college students and the community will be changed forever. LITTLE Engineers Overview The rise of immoral behavior is a factor that has contributed to the rise of school dropouts in major cities and towns (Marchevsky and Theoharis ). The Federal Bonding Program, Work Opportunity Tax Credit, and Workforce Investment Act (WIA) has been able to team up with the LITTLE Engineers in overseeing the activities of community building through healthy living education workshops. LITTLE Engineers are aware of the need to familiarize students with the technological systems in the medical field and have formed partnerships with other organizations to give rehabilitation services to be able to succeed in the current work environment. Background Convicted felons in the United States have increased at an alarming rate that has brought the attention of many organizations because the health of young people is in jeopardy. It

Monday, October 14, 2019

It Is a Constant Image of Your Face Essay Example for Free

It Is a Constant Image of Your Face Essay Dennis Vincent Brutus was a South African activist, educator, journalist and poet best known for his campaign to have apartheid South Africa banned from the Olympic Games. He lived between 28th November 1924 and 26th December 2009. He was born in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and had ancestry of mixed French, Italian and South African. His activist life likens him to a crusader for his country. A knight on duty for a mistress; and this has so often appeared in his poetry. He loved South Africa deeply and did everything to win its freedom. In this poem, â€Å"It Is the Constant Image of Your Face†, he closes the first stanza by saying â€Å"my land takes precedence of all my loves†. This was his passion. While he was in prison, news broke that South Africa had been banned from the 1964 Tokyo Olympics as he had campaigned for. First Thoughts on the Poem In this poem, the poet experiences a deep feeling of guilt and remorse. The poet has framed an image of his beloved whose face is constantly before him, while he is engrossed in a world of his own; a world in which thoughts are like knives, hurling accusations at him. These accusations cut deeply into the poet’s consciousness and remind him of his treachery to his native country. Apparently, the poet has left his native home, having been captivated by the beauty and assurances of his beloved. However, deep in his heart he knows that no other love can lay claim to his loyalty but his homeland which is above all other loves. Feelings of remorse and guilt plague the thoughts of the poet. To him, leaving his country is like an act of treason and treachery. Although he prizes his beloved, he pleads for forgiveness from his country whose tenderness matches or surpasses that of the beloved. Second Thoughts on the Poem This poem is a typical Dennis Brutus poem. As is characteristic, he compares his love for South Africa, to the love he has for some other person. Maybe, a woman! He opens the poem by saying ‘the constant image’ (line 1) of his woman’s face and the ‘grave attention’ (line 3) of her eyes which survey him amid his ‘world of knives’ (line 4), accuse him perennially. This is all coming to him as a memory because in line 2, he makes the allusion to a period gone when his love was knelt before him with the frame of her face in his hands. His ‘world of knives’ can mean so many things at once. It could mean that Brutus was surrounded by apartheid South Africa with its numerous brutalities. It could also mean that he was conflicted inside him, in a way that struck him like many knives piercing at once. Again, he could be talking about the conflict between his two loves as the poem tells us as we read on. And we are yet to know what she accuses him for, but Brutus doesn’t make us wonder long. She accuses him of heart’s-treachery (line 6). No, not even accuses but convicts! He has accepted that he has been treacherous to his woman, going on to probably share his love with another. But he does not apologise for it. He tells her that none of the two of them can ‘plead excuses’ (line 7) for his seeming infidelity because apparently, he cannot stop his love for his land and she can also ‘claim no loyalty’ (line 8). I want to risk saying that he is saying that he’s not bound to be loyal to her because ‘my land takes precedence of all my loves’ (line 9). He loves his land more than all his other loves. His land is his woman’s rival. The second stanza is an attempt to pacify the heart of his woman who has been brought to the saddening realisation that she cannot have her lover all to herself. He begs mitigation (line 10), meaning that he admits that he has done wrong but is ready to give reasons for it. He calls her lover an ‘accomplice of my heart’ (line 11). That is like saying that she is equally guilty of his betrayal of his greater love. The woman is so beautiful that she has blackmailed him with her beauty (line 12) and made him a backslidden lover when it comes to his land. He has given his heart to another one outside his precedent love. In fact, her love for him has been so sweet and protective that he finds no shame in confessing his denial of his country. He calls it a ‘still-fresh treason’ (line 15). But in this confused place, a world of knives, he pleads, hopes (line 16) that his dearest love (line 16), South Africa, will pardon him freely (line 17) and not blame his woman. He ends by revealing more of his confusion, saying that South Africa, his first love, is his woman’s ‘mistress (or your match)’ (line 18), not knowing which to say is more tender. He loves one, he loves the other. One was able to conspire with his heart and steal his affection from the other, and now he does not even know whether the two are matched or one is dearer to his heart. The greater emotion here is Brutus’ guilt of diluting the apartheid struggle with other cares. His love of his land is shown here overwhelmingly. This poem is another beauty that has added a little more tonnage to my love for this most romantic of poets coming from Africa.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Chemistry of Drugs :: Addictions Marijuana Health Science Essays

The Chemistry of Drugs Delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive constituent of Cannibis sativa, and is bound to two cannabinoid receptors: CB1 receptors, located primarily in the brain, and CB2 receptors, located primarily in the periphery (Wiley & Martin 2002). A cannabinoid is defined as a substance that has pharmacological properties that resemble those of delta 9 THC i.e. " a drug that binds to CB1 and /or CB2 receptors in vitro and produces a profile of in vivo effects in the tetrad model" (Wiley 2002). THC inhibits the function of the enzyme adenylate cyclase which is involved in the transmission of pain messages. While there are over 60 cannibinoids identified in the plant Cannabis sativa, Delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary mood altering psychoactive agent in marijuana. Marijuana effects acetylcholine synthesis and turnover in the limbic region of the brain and in the cerebellum. (Harwood 2005) Eldreth, Matochik Cadet, and Bolla (2004) used PET 15 and a modified version of the Stroop task to determine if 25 day abstinent heavy marijuana users experienced persistent deficits in executive cognitive functioning and brain activity. The performance on a modified version of the Stroop task and brain activity was compared between 25 day abstinent, heavy users, and a matched comparison group. The 25 day abstinent users showed no deficits in performance on the modified version of the Stroop task when compared to the comparison group. They also found that despite the lack of performance differences, the anterior cingulated cortex and the left lateral prefrontal cortex had hyperactivity in the hippocampus bilaterally, when compared to the comparison group. The results suggested that users display persistent metabolic alterations in brain regions responsible for executive cognitive functioning. (Eldreth, Matochik, Cadet, & Bolla 2004). When performing the Stoop task, marijuana users were found to have greater activation compared to the comparison group in the left and right hippocampus. Marijuana users also failed to activate to the same extent as the comparison group in the left lateral prefrontal cortex and the left perigenual anterior cingulated cortex. According to Gardner (2002) drugs that are addictive to humans are similar to animal model systems in five ways. First, drugs enhance electrical brain stimulation reward in the core meso-accumbens reward circuitry of the brain, a circuit encompassing that portion of the medial forebrain bundle which links the ventral tegmental area of the mesencephalic midbrain

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Evolution Of Society In The Mi :: essays research papers

The New Way of Thinking   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The height of the Middle Ages signified a revolutionary way of thinking among the people. The people of the day were breaking out of the old, controlled lifestyle, to which they were accustomed, and they began expressing themselves in many different ways. The people began breaking out of the normal, monotonous lifestyle and they began becoming individuals. The women began taking on new roles. They became independent and lived on their own. The soldiers began losing their prestige, and their life drastically changed. The clergymen took on more of a secular role, which prompted a new way of thinking toward the church. During the Middle Ages, peoples’ ideas began changing, which prompted a whole new outlook on society.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The role of women drastically changed in the Middle Ages. Women became more independent. Society became more focused on money. So women also became very focused on money, â€Å"†¦going to bed with a nice young man and earning your first mina? And I’m going to spend some of it right away to buy you a new necklace† (Turner, p. 39). Women became interested in jewelry and clothes, â€Å"†¦you’d soon be able to support me, and buy your own jewellery, and have lots of money and servants and gorgeous clothes† (Turner, p. 39). Instead of women relying on men to subsidize their major needs, if women were unmarried or widowed, they began taking care of their own needs, â€Å"When he died, I sold his hammer and tongs and anvil for two minas, and that kept us going for a while. Then I did various jobs like dressmaking and spinning and weaving, to scrape together enough for us to live on. But all the time I was struggling to bring you up, this was what I was hoping for† (Turner, p. 39). Women became fascinated with trying to keep the attention of men, even if it meant making them jealous, â€Å"†¦if he thinks someone rich is after you. He’ll be more upset, and start offering you better terms. He won’t want his rival to outbid him† (Turner, p. 42). So women began taking on a more independent role. Their fascination with money and prestige grew, and they wanted the attention of men, no matter what the cost. The role of women in society drastically began changing in the Middle Ages and a new way of thinking towards women developed. Evolution Of Society In The Mi :: essays research papers The New Way of Thinking   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The height of the Middle Ages signified a revolutionary way of thinking among the people. The people of the day were breaking out of the old, controlled lifestyle, to which they were accustomed, and they began expressing themselves in many different ways. The people began breaking out of the normal, monotonous lifestyle and they began becoming individuals. The women began taking on new roles. They became independent and lived on their own. The soldiers began losing their prestige, and their life drastically changed. The clergymen took on more of a secular role, which prompted a new way of thinking toward the church. During the Middle Ages, peoples’ ideas began changing, which prompted a whole new outlook on society.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The role of women drastically changed in the Middle Ages. Women became more independent. Society became more focused on money. So women also became very focused on money, â€Å"†¦going to bed with a nice young man and earning your first mina? And I’m going to spend some of it right away to buy you a new necklace† (Turner, p. 39). Women became interested in jewelry and clothes, â€Å"†¦you’d soon be able to support me, and buy your own jewellery, and have lots of money and servants and gorgeous clothes† (Turner, p. 39). Instead of women relying on men to subsidize their major needs, if women were unmarried or widowed, they began taking care of their own needs, â€Å"When he died, I sold his hammer and tongs and anvil for two minas, and that kept us going for a while. Then I did various jobs like dressmaking and spinning and weaving, to scrape together enough for us to live on. But all the time I was struggling to bring you up, this was what I was hoping for† (Turner, p. 39). Women became fascinated with trying to keep the attention of men, even if it meant making them jealous, â€Å"†¦if he thinks someone rich is after you. He’ll be more upset, and start offering you better terms. He won’t want his rival to outbid him† (Turner, p. 42). So women began taking on a more independent role. Their fascination with money and prestige grew, and they wanted the attention of men, no matter what the cost. The role of women in society drastically began changing in the Middle Ages and a new way of thinking towards women developed.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Romeo and Juliet Dramatic Effects

Analyse the dramatic importance of Act 3 Scene 5. Act 3 scene 5 is of huge dramatic importance as it is pivotal to the plot of the play. Act 3 scene 5 takes place the morning after Romeo and Juliet have spent their first night together following their marriage. In the first part of the scene, they are very happy and also very romantic as Romeo says â€Å"How are you, my love? † This shows that Romeo cares for Juliet and it also shows how much love, Romeo has just been banished from Verona for killing Tybalt and is preparing to leave.This makes Juliet very upset as they haven’t even spent a day together. The nurse comes to warn them that Juliet’s mother is coming to see her to discuss her marriage to Paris. After Romeo has left, Juliet bursts into tears. When Lady Capulet arrives, Juliet cries even more but Lady Capulet thinks she is crying because of her cousin’s death. Lord Capulet explodes with anger when he hears that Juliet disagrees with the marriage. The nurse unexpectedly advises her to marry Paris. The key themes highlighted in this scene are: happiness, love, parental conflict, anger and sadness.In this scene we learn a great deal about the characters of: Romeo, Juliet, Capulet, Lady Capulet and the nurse. In the previous scene Romeo and Juliet get married and the Montagues and the Capulets have a fight which leads to the deaths of Mercutio and Tybalt. Romeo is banished from Verona for murdering Tybalt because Tybalt has murdered Mercutio. Lady Capulet seems to support and comfort her daughter, but when Juliet argues and shouts she simply hands it over to Lord Capulet who will control Juliet. In the time of Shakespeare the men were in charge of the house and the children so the audience would have agreed to the play.Lady Capulet thinks that she can control Juliet, so she informs her of the marriage that has already been arranged. She seems very concerned about Juliet but she cannot control her herself and threatens Juliet â €Å"here comes your father. Tell him so yourself, and see how he will take it at your hands†. She means I will not say anything so see what your father has to say. In the previous scenes she was very quiet and innocent but in this scene she changes from being quiet into a very loud character which reveals her true nature.The Nurse is a very caring character and understands Juliet’s problems but in this scene she disagrees with Juliet as she advises her to marry Paris when she is aware that she has already been married to Romeo. This disheartens Juliet so much as she is the only person who she trusted. The Nurse says â€Å"I think the best thing to do is to marry the count† as if she is speaking to someone she doesn’t know. Juliet relies on her so much that she is shocked when she hears such a thing come out of the Nurse’s mouth. Juliet declares â€Å"from now on I will never tell what I feel in my heart†.She also doesn’t say this stra ight to her face as the Nurse would start avoiding her which would please her parents and lead to Juliet getting into more trouble. The Nurse tries to persuade Juliet of Paris’ superiority and believes â€Å"Romeo’s a dishclout to him†. The image of the dishcloth indicates that Romeo is not worthy of Juliet. This makes Juliet furious because it was originally the Nurse who reported positively about Romeo. In this scene the Nurse is ambivalent because she supports Juliet when Lord Capulet explodes with anger as Juliet refuses to marry Paris.In previous scenes the Nurse is very supportive and thinks of Juliet as her own daughter when she says â€Å"What, lamb! What, ladybird! †, but in this scene she changes from supporting Juliet to letting her down when she asks for her advice. Lord Capulet is a very strong character throughout the play but he does care about Juliet as he claims that he will not do anything against his daughter’s will but in this s cene he orders her to â€Å"go to church on Thursday or never look me in the face again.Don’t say anything. Don’t reply. Don’t talk back to me†. This quote would be very aggressive when said in the play as he is saying it with aggression and anger. Which shows that the old Capulet has gone. In this scene, generally, everyone shows their bad side as it is now getting serious about Juliet’s wedding. In this scene Capulet uses metaphors such as â€Å"when the sun sets, the air drizzles dew. But at the death of my brother’s son, it rains a down pour. What are you, girl? Some kind of fountain? he is comparing the downpour and the amount of tears that Juliet is producing and he is also trying to express that Juliet is not crying for her cousins death but crying for her husband Romeo. He also slams her on the floor while she begs on her knees and as he is not aware that Juliet is already married he repeatedly tells her to marry but the audience kn ows that if she marries she will go to hell as there is a sin if she marries again. This scene would have been very dramatic and sad as the audience would have felt sorry for her.By Capulet doing this creates a feeling of tension and pressure for Juliet as she is begging him. From the audience’s point of view, Juliet is very innocent but Capulet refers to her as a â€Å"disobedient wretch†. This shows the amount he cares he takes for his daughter. If this were to happen in today’s society maybe he would be prosecuted for child abuse. Later in the play Juliet pretends to agree to the marriage but nobody is aware of that. Friar Lawrence gives her a potion that she will have before the night of the wedding so that she will fall into a deep sleep and wake up after 12 hours.Act 3 scene 5 is one of the most dramatic scenes in the play. This scene leads to many misconceptions as the Friar Lawrence was supposed to inform Romeo of the plans but Romeo didn’t get th e message. But he got the news that Juliet had died. Act 3 scene 5 reveals most of the characters’ true natures. This scene is important as this is the scene that leads to the death of Romeo and Juliet and also it reveals the Nurses’ real character as she didn’t really understand the true love of Romeo and Juliet. All of the characters undergo a dramatic change in how they behave in this scene.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Healthcare in the United States Essay

Health care around the world is very different. The United States is a pluralistic, privately owned system. They are technology driven, and an insurance based type of health care. They have issues with the cost rising versus the people receiving benefits. Germany, Canada, and Great Britain all use a universal type of health care where they believe all citizens should have moderate access to treatments. Germany uses Socialized Health Insurance. Canada uses National Health Insurance that is divided among its provinces and territories. Finally, Great Britain uses Socialized Health Insurance. Key Words: Health care, United States, Germany, Great Britain, Canada. The United States of America is based upon principles set forth by our founding fathers. â€Å"We the people by the people† is one of the principles that we still live by today. This is a value that we implement in all sects of government, including health care. The United States has a health care system that is mostly pri vately owned. The government usually steps in when needed. Such cases involve money for vulnerable populations, fundraising, and training individuals in the healthcare field. There are many characteristics of our healthcare system that are vastly different than other countries such as: Germany, Canada, and Great Britain. While the United States’ healthcare is mostly managed by private sectors, their healthcare is predominantly run and financed by the government. Growth in science has led for an essential need for new technology. Hospitals are constantly competing and advertising new technology. Why compete for new technology? Many healthcare providers and holders of heath care plans feel that there are great legal risks involved when new technology has not been implemented. Other stakeholders that desire modern technology are the patients and the physicians. Patients now desire to use new technology because they assume that it has greater benefits than the old method. Physicians also want to tinker with the new tools that modern day society has developed. In the United States, access to health care is based on insurance coverage. You may receive the service through four major avenues. Firstly, the public may join a government healthcare program such as Medicare or Medicaid to receive benefits. Secondly, employers can provide insurance to their employees. Thirdly, an individual with the means to afford healthcare may purchase insurance on their own. Finally, people may  pay for services individually. However, there are some Americans who have chosen not to have insurance. â€Å"In 2006, forty-seven million people (58.8% of the population) were uninsured, meaning they were not covered by any program, public or private† ( When someone is uninsured they have a few options. One option is to pay out of pocket for the individual services that they require. The second option is to access Federal Fund Centers, and the third option is to pursue treatment for their acute illness. When a citizen seeks treatment, hospitals are required to give them care due to the implement of The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act of 1986. This law states that a few tasks must be completed regardless of the patient’s ability to pay the hospital. The patient must first be admitted to the hospital and then given a physical scan. Following the scan the individual should be given the appropriate care in order to stabilize them. Furthermore, a major characteristic of health care in the United States is the exorbitant amount of money it costs to receive health care. As a nation, we spend more than any other country in the world on providing health care to our citizens. Although we are spending a large amount of the countries deficit, we are seeing little progress in providing access to the masses. Healthcare is one of the largest contributing factors to the United States’ GDP with a cost of over 2.7 trillion dollars (Sultz, 1997, p.1). With such cost, innovations and expansions are inevitable. The new technology has undoubtedly helped advance the longevity of people’s lives, but it has also raised the cost of being able to access the treatments. People with better insurance or a greater need for the service may get an unfair advantage in receiving these services. This advantage causes a moral dilemma for the physician and the Health Care Administration (HCA) staff. Physicians and staff need to make sure that the old method is no longer as great as the new technology. This will keep costs down and allow for a greater amount of peopl e to receive the treatment that they need. The United States is based on a health care system where individuals must purchase their own insurance while still paying taxes to fund other government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. As with any health care system, issues may arise. A key issue deals with employers and employees. In many cases, employers provide a healthcare program to their workers. What if the employee is a part-time worker? In such instances, many employers do not  offer such benefits for individuals who are not on the clock full-time. As we all know, health care in the United States is the most expensive care in the world. The issues with this expense are many. While costs are already high, they are only going to continue to sky-rocket. Another issue with cost is that while Americans are spending an outrageous amount of money, they are not reaping the benefits. Millions of Americans are still unable to receive the proper health care because they are unable to afford insurance. Unlike the United States, most European countries have national health care. The United States and European countries differ substantially in the way they conduct medical care for their citizens. These health care programs provide care for all citizens, known as â₠¬Å"universal health care.† Universal healthcare is a blanket term meaning there are different sub-divisions that stem from this type of care. Germany, Canada and, Great Britain all have different types of universal healthcare. Germany is a socialized health care country. Socialized health care means that funds are contributed by employers and employees because of government mandates. The Germanic government is in overall control of all procedures. However, there are still private delivery programs that help with carrying out the health care processes in Germany. â€Å"All Germans with incomes under â‚ ¬46,300 are required to enroll in one of the sickness funds† ( Higher income citizens may opt for private care or join a federal sickness fund. The federal government decides what benefits to add to this package. Sickness funds are provided through a pay roll tax which is taken from the employer and the employee. Less than ten percent of the population decides to use private in surance. Insurance and payments using the federal sickness fund are closely related in the socialized healthcare system. Many believe that carrying out procedures in this manner provides a more orderly healthcare in comparison to the United States. Canada uses a different form of healthcare known as the National Health Insurance System or commonly referred to as Medicare. This form of insurance â€Å"was initially established in the Medical Care Act of 1966 providing fifty-fifty cost sharing† ( General taxes collected by the government are what finances the healthcare system but private providers deliver the care. The government decides how the insurance plans ultimately work. Canada has ten provinces and three territories that carry out the functions of the  healthcare while the government oversees their actions. All Canadian citizens and permanent residents are eligible for health insurance in Canada. Unlike America, Canada’s system is built to facilitate people’s need for health care rather than their ability to pay for services. Medicare is intended to assist all Canadian residents so that they have reasonable access to hospitals and physicians. Canada has a multi-part insurance plan for the provinces and territories. Each has similar features and standards that come together to form Canada’s health care plan. When a resident arrives at the health care facility they simply show their health care card. Most services are covered by taxes paid to the government. However, in some cases you will need private health care because policies are slightly different when traveling from a province to a territory. Finally, Great Britain’s health care is provided through the National Healthcare Service. Like Canada, their system of health care is designed to help all the citizens receive health care. Great Britain’s system is publically funded through general taxes of the people. For a single-payer health care system, the cost of providing care is relatively low. However, there are limited options in choosing your provider as well as a long waiting list to see them. â€Å"There are 750,000 Britons on the waiting lists for hospital admission; 40% of cancer patients are never able to see an oncologist; there is explicit rationing for services such as kidney dialysis, open heart surgery and care for the terminally ill†( This is why a very small percent of the citizens choose t pay for private health care which is almost the same as generic health care but with better care and quicker waiting times. This health care is almost the same as the generic insurance Great Britain provides but it has shorter waiting times and better quality care. Another feature of this system is that there are no deductibles and almost no co-pay. In summary, the United States has a very different system of health care than Germany, Canada, and Great Britain. The United States is private, whereas the other countries are mostly publicly run by the government. Every system of health care has its pitfalls. Today, politicians and the public are trying to find a way to maximize the efficiency of cost, access and quality. References: ltz, H., & Young, K. (1997). Health care USA: Understanding its organization and delivery (8th ed., p. 1). Gaithersburg, Md.: Aspen.

Food Tourism

World Tourism Organization, 2012 Secretary General: Taleb Rifai Executive Director for Competitiveness, External Relations and Partnerships: Marcio Favilla L. de Paula Editorial team: Dmitriy Ilin, Project Manager, Global Report on Food Tourism Inaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant, TANGIBLE – Tourism Industry Consultants Peter Jordan Series editor: UNWTO would like to sincerely thank all those who contributed material to this report. Copyright  © 2012, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Global Report on Food Tourism Published by the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Madrid, Spain.First printing: 2012 All rights reserved. Printed in Spain. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinions whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Tourism Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or bound aries. Photos by UNWTO and Dreamstime World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Calle Capitan Haya, 42 28020 Madrid Spain Citation: World Tourism Organization (2012), Global Report on Food Tourism, UNWTO, Madrid Tel. (+34) 915 678 100 Fax: (+34) 915 713 733 Website: www. unwto. org E-mail: [email  protected] org publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, work and is pleased to consider permissions, licensing, and translation requests related to UNWTO publications. Permission to photocopy UNWTO material in Spain must be obtained through: Calle Monte Esquinza, 14 28010 Madrid Spain Fax: (+34) 913 08 63 27 Website: www. edro. org E-mail: [email  protected] org For authorization of the reproduction of UNWTO works outside of Spain, please contact one of CEDRO’s partner organizations, with which bilateral agreements are in place (see: http://www. cedro. org/en). For all remaining countries as well as f or other permissions, requests should be addressed directly to the World Tourism Organization. For applications see: http://www. unwto. org/pub/rights. htm. Global Report on Food Tourism CONTENTSForeward Taleb Rifai / 4 Introduction / 5 Gastronomy’s importance in the development of tourism destinations in the world / 6 Global trends on food tourism / 10 What our Members say / 12 CASE STUDIES International Initiatives Euro-toques in Europe: 3500 artisan cooks in defence of â€Å"eating well† / 18 Food and the Tourism Experience / 20 Foda / 22 Tourism Destinations Azerbaijan: aromas and tastes of the East with a European twist / 26 Brazil and its Paths of Flavour / 28 Egypt: food tourism experience / 30 Food and wine tourism in Georgia / 32 Kazakhstan: tracing the country’s ancient history through its food / 34 Gastronomic tourism in Korea – Globalizing Hansik / 36 A taste of Moscow / 38 Malaysia: at the cross-roads of Asian food culture / 40 Morning pilau, or peculiarities of Uzbek cuisine / 42 Business organizations Tasting Spain: the creation of a product club for gastronomic tourism / 46 Food and wine tourism: Challenges and Opportunities / 48 Sustainable gastronomy: Prospects for the Future / 50 Fine dining: an â€Å"awakening to art de vivre† Relais & Chateaux-style / 52 A brief summary of the SETE study â€Å"Gastronomy & the Marketing of Greek Tourism† / 54 Educational organizations The Basque Culinary Center / 58 Safety Food – the Brazilian Experience / 60 Presentation of the B. E. S. T. concept / 62 Foreword Taleb Rifai, Secretary-General, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) For many of the world’s billions of tourists, returning to familiar destinations to enjoy tried and tested recipes, cuisine, gastronomy has become a central part of the tourism experience. Against this background, food tourism has gained increasing attention over the past years. Tourists are attracted to local produce and many destinations are centering their product development and marketing accordingly.With food so deeply connected to its origin, this focus allows destinations to market themselves as truly unique, appealing to those travelers who look to feel takes a closer look at the links between tourism and food, highlighting the importance of this industry to the tourism sector and economies worldwide. Bringing together experiences from some of the world’s top tourism destinations, as well as from food tourism experts, the report offers important insight and recommendations into this growing segment of tourism. Members and other organizations who have contributed to this report. I trust it will serve as a delicious appetizer to the improved knowledge and continued development of food tourism.This is especially important for rural communities, many of which have struggled in the face of rapid urbanization and shifts away from traditional economic sectors. With their proximity to food-producin g lands, rural communities often enjoy a comparative advantage when it comes to serving up traditional fare. Tourism, particularly food tourism, allows these communities to generate income and employment opportunities locally, providing jobs for vineyard tour guides or local chefs, while fuelling other sectors of the local economy such as agriculture. The Global Report on Food Tourism, the latest in the UNWTO Secretary-General, Taleb Rifai 4 UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismThe aim was to try to obtain a series of conclusions regarding some of the initiatives that are going on worldwide in Food Tourism for possible inclusion in the the public sector and businesses about policies for importance of gastronomy in the development of tourism destinations in the world and reviews the global trends in Food Tourism. It also reports on the results of the survey Introduction the current situation of Gastronomic Tourism. The second part of the report presents case studies of Food Tourism. Fi rst, it presents international initiatives such as Eurotoques, an organization of chefs that includes more than 3,500 restaurateurs from 18 countries; the study carried out by the OECD on â€Å"Food and the Tourism Experience†; and the Slow Food movement, which was founded in 1986 and is present in more than 122 countries.In recent years, Food Tourism has grown considerably and has become one of the most dynamic and creative segments of tourism. Both destinations and tourism companies are aware of the importance of gastronomy in order to diversify tourism and stimulate local, regional and national economic development. Furthermore, Food Tourism includes in its discourse ethical and sustainable values based on the territory, the landscape, the sea, local culture, local products, authenticity, which is something it has in common with current trends of cultural consumption. This new volume of the â€Å"AM Reports† series, â€Å"Global Members of the World Tourism Organiz ation (UNWTO), and was produced with the support of Member States, egional and national tourism destinations, such as Brazil, Egypt, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Uzbekistan and Moscow. It also includes the experience of business organizations the management and promotion of Food Tourism of Spain; the Portuguese Institute for Tourism Planning and Development (IPDT); the Hotel and Gastronomy Business Federation of Argentina (FEHGRA); Relais & Chateaux, an exclusive collection of 475 charming hotels and gourmet restaurants in 55 countries; and the Association of Greek Tourism Enterprises (SETE) . In this Report, we have attempted to carry out an analysis of the current situation of Food Tourism, through of tourism and gastronomy professionals with extensive experience in international organizations, in destination training. ducational institutions, such as the Basque Culinary Centre in San Sebastian, the National Confederation of Trade in Goods, Services and Tourism of Brazil (CNCSENAC) and the Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne, on their vision and the role of human resources training in the development of Food Tourism. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 5 Gastronomy’s importance in the development of tourism destinations in the world Carmina Fandos Herrera, Senior Lecturer in Marketing, Universidad de Zaragoza Javier Blanco Herranz, gastronomic tourism? Today, travellers are more experienced, have more disposable income and more leisure time to travel, and thus tourism allows them to escape the daily routine of their usual environment and immerse themselves in a world of freedom and novelty.Thus, more and more tourists in the world are looking for concrete learning experiences, and in this endeavour the gastronomic experience, in highly diverse ways, is playing an increasingly prominent part. Current research in gastronomic tourism is scarce and is mainly focused on wine, and â€Å"oenotourists† are not necessarily the same individuals who engage in othe r, nonoenological gastronomic activities. Gastronomic tourism is an emerging phenomenon that is being developed as a new tourism product due, inter alia, to the fact that according to the specialized literature (among others, Quan and Wang, 2004) over a third of tourist spending is devoted to food. Therefore, the cuisine of the destination is an aspect of utmost importance in the quality of the holiday experience. PhD Student in Marketing, Universidad de Zaragoza sed in the literature is that proposed by Hall and Sharples (2003), according to which food tourism is an experiential trip to a gastronomic region, for recreational or entertainment purposes, which includes visits to primary and secondary producers of food, gastronomic festivals, food fairs, events, farmers’ markets, cooking shows and demonstrations, tastings of quality food products or any tourism activity related to food. In addition, this experiential journey is related to a particular lifestyle that includes exp erimentation, learning from different cultures, the acquisition of knowledge and understanding of the qualities or attributes related to tourism products, as well as culinary specialities produced in that region through its consumption.Thus, the experience of gastronomic tourism is considered as such, provided that everything mentioned above constitutes the main reason or motivation to travel for visitors to a particular destination or But even without gastronomy being the main motivation for choosing a destination, the fact is that it is increasingly 6 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism occupying a substantial role as a secondary or partial motivation of tourists in the world (according to recent research, eating in restaurants is the second favourite activity of foreigners visiting the United States and is the number one leisure activity for U. S. travellers when they visit other countries). organized around an effective system of public-private cooperation.Both approaches are in separable and can restaurants and food industries, but also other sectors indirectly related but linked to tourism, creating conditions for improving local employment and the promotion of new outside the scope of the product â€Å"gastronomic tourism†, and adaptable to tourism-motivation dynamics that are increasingly plural and complex. Thus, we can take a step further and say that gastronomic tourism applies to tourists and visitors who plan their trips partially or totally in order to taste the cuisine of the place or to carry out activities related to gastronomy. Gastronomic tourism comprises many different subtypes if we look through the prism of the food or dish in question.Thus we have, for example, offerings related to whisky, cider, cognac, cava, horchata, sake, or tea. Gastronomic routes are becoming without doubt one of the most developed products in this area. A gastronomic route is a system that constitutes a comprehensive and thematic tourism offering, generally branded, and is area (although in reality, gastronomy has no borders), with a series of tourism products or sites, such as factories and restaurants, which are listed in tourism guidebooks dish, generally with differentiated quality, or gastronomic events or activities. The route also informs about other sites of historical interest, thus promoting economic development throughout the area.Therefore, the idea is to bring together different types of tourist attractions and to offer them in a conveniently packaged form so that tourists stay longer in the area than if only one kind of attraction is featured. In our opinion, gastronomic routes will be successful if they manage to activate gastronomic heritage and convert it into food tourism as an attraction for tourists, while at the same time differentiating it from the competition as visitors look for variety, new sensations and authentic experiences. But, any creation or value proposition made to strengthen travel motivations centre d on gastronomy should be underpinned by sustainability principles and practices and Carmina Fandos HerreraGastronomic tourism, lifestyle and tourism motivations Lifestyle is used in tourism to assess involvement in tourism experiences. Researchers have pointed out that culinary tourism is an authentic experience of a sophisticated lifestyle in a pleasant environment, associated with the good life and the economic wellbeing of consuming exclusive, high-quality locally grown products. Tourist motivations constitute a key concept for the design and creation of products and services that add value for tourists. Motivations are related to consumer satisfaction and are considered a key component in understanding the decision-making process of visitors.Thus, several physical or physiological needs (sensory perception and hedonism) security, cultural and social needs, the need to belong or interpersonal needs, the need for prestige (local delicacies), status or self-realization. In additio n, UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 7 the literature posits two dimensions for motivation: the hedonistic, with regard to aesthetic products, and the utilitarian or rational. Tourism destination image and the gastronomic tourism experience Several studies have found that tourists travel to those destinations that have established a reputation as a place to experiment with quality local products. tourist motivations as either internal stimuli or â€Å"push†, or external stimuli or â€Å"pull†.The former are considered from the perspective of demand, and they lead the tourist to travel to gastronomic tourism destinations that often include desires as well as psychological, social and ego-centric needs such as escapism from the daily routine, relaxing with family, rest, exploration and social interaction and affective or emotional bonding. The resources considered pull factors are cultural and natural attractions, special events and festivals, experiences with food pro ducts in the destinations and other opportunities for leisure and entertainment, value, friendliness of residents, gastronomic diversity and variety, attributes or characteristics of the destination such as proximity, etc. whose brand image is connected, with varying levels of intensity, to gastronomic values.By way of example, it is possible to give a non-exhaustive list that includes, among others, Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Belgium, Portugal, USA (especially in areas such as California’s Napa and Sonoma Valleys), Brazil, Peru, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Australia, Chile, Malaysia, Japan, example, that the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece, Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November 2010. As for the gastronomic tourism experience, it can be a number of attributes (attractiveness of the food and environment, quality of service), after a stay in a tourist destination where the tourist engaged in an activity related to gastronomy. The tourist’s perceived value of a particular destination or establishment is therefore multidimensional.Post-experience satisfaction is a critical indicator for assessing the effectiveness or performance of the products and services of the destination. The tourist’s satisfaction with the purchase depends on the product’s performance in relation to the tourist’s expectations. It should be kept in mind that different cultures have different perceptions of satisfaction and evaluation of gastronomy and that high quality of service can result in dissatisfaction among consumers if their expectations had been too high, for example, due to exaggerated advertising. Satisfaction with the destination leads to customer loyalty and this in turn gives a higher level of intention to repeat the visit.Quality gastronomy is a decisive factor in satisfaction, as it produces a lasting memory about the experience lived by the tourist. Thus, depending on the expectations held by the consumer as to the †¦ the cuisine of the destination is an aspect of utmost importance in the quality of the holiday experience. Javier Blanco Herranz 8 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism gastronomy of the destination, such expectations predict behaviour. Here is where success lies: having tourists revisit the destination due to its gastronomy. The festive atmosphere, relaxation and fun experienced by the tourist during a gastronomic route, and the social interaction with people of similar interests create associations in the tourist’s mind linked to the good times experienced by the visitor.To recap, gastronomic tourism is a local phenomenon of universal scope that is in a clear growth phase; it has a positive impact on the economy, employment and local heritage, as tourists seek to get to know not only the local food but also to know its origin and production processes, making it an expression of cultural tourism; it has grea t potential for expansion as a main motivation for tourism trips and although this type of tourism is still practised by a minority of tourists, the fact is that it is attracting a very select type of tourist with a high volume of expenditure on very high-quality products, and lastly, the development of gastronomic tourism contributes to improving the general perception of the destination. the Mediterranean diet of Spain, Greece, Italy and Morocco was included in UNESCO’s list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in November 2010. 1 QUAN, S. & WANG, N. 2004, â€Å"Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism† Tourism management, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 297-305. 2 HALL, C. M. & SHARPLES, L. (2003). â€Å"The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste† in Food tourism around the world. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 1-24. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 9 Global trends in food tourism A people that does not drink its wine and eat its cheese has a serious identity problem. † Inaki Gaztelumendi, Consultant on food tourism The development of tourism today is paradoxical. It simultaneously generates processes of globalization and enhanced appreciation of local resources. Tourism destinations, obliged to maintain increasingly intense competitiveness and engaged in a constant struggle to retain some of their market, face an increasingly dynamic and sophisticated environment. The world is increasingly open; however, tourists seek experiences based on local identity and culture. In recent years gastronomy has become an indispensable element in order to get to know the culture and lifestyle of a territory.Gastronomy embodies all the traditional values associated with the new trends in tourism: respect for culture and tradition, a healthy lifestyle, authenticity, sustainability, experience†¦ Likewise, gastr onomy represents an opportunity to revitalize and diversify tourism, promotes local economic development, involves different professional sectors (producers, chefs, markets, etc. ), and brings new uses to the primary sector. This leading role of gastronomy in the choice of destination and tourism consumption has resulted in the growth of gastronomic offerings based on high-quality local products and the consolidation of a separate market for food tourism. What are the major global trends and the keys to success that can be observed in this development of food tourism? It is a growing market.The growth of food tourism worldwide is an obvious fact. It is one of the most dynamic segments within the tourism market. But what are food tourists like? They are tourists who take part in the new trends of cultural consumption. They are travellers seeking the authenticity of the places they visit through food. They are concerned about the origin of products. They recognize the value of gastron omy as a means of socializing, as a space for sharing life with others, for exchanging experiences. Such tourists have higher-thanaverage expenditure, they are demanding and appreciative, 10 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism and they eschew uniformity.Therefore, gastronomy cannot become a bland and anonymous product; it must have personality, because otherwise it will become vulnerable, de-localized and subject to adulteration. The territory is the backbone of gastronomic offerings. The terroir is an element that differentiates and is the source local identity. It encompasses environmental and landscape values, history, culture, traditions, the countryside, the sea, the own cuisine of the place. In this regard, the conversion of the territory into a culinary landscape is one of the challenges of tourism destinations. The product is the basis of Food Tourism. Therefore, natural resources we are going to convert into tourism products that make it possible to identify this territory. Cultural Heritage.Culture is the set of behaviours, knowledge and customs that shape a society and on which a sense of belonging is based. The design of any food tourism offering will not viable if it does not take into account the cultural characteristics of the territory. Gastronomy allows tourists to access the cultural and historical heritage of destinations through tasting, experiencing and purchasing. That is, it makes it possible to approach culture in a more experiential and participatory way that is not purely contemplative. We must also take into account the emergence of new cultural values, which increase the richness and cultural diversity of the country. In this regard, Tradition and Innovation coexist in a natural manner.Gastronomic tradition is in a process of continuous evolution, and the challenge for professionals is to incorporate innovation in order to renew and adapt their offerings to the needs of the new cultural consumer. Sustainability. Food tourism is capa ble of addressing cultural and environmental concerns in a way that is compatible with purely economic arguments. The recent history of global tourism development is littered with nominally sustainable models and manifestly unsustainable actions. The idea is not to create new indiscriminate pressure on culinary heritage, but to leverage it rationally with an eye to sustainability. It is not about â€Å"touristifying† gastronomy, by creating new offerings or scaling up existing ones. It is not so much bout creating in order to attract, but rather attracting visitors to participate in the destination’s own cultural reality, well explained and interpreted, through cuisine, local products and all the services and activities that surround them. Quality. Destinations that want to promote food tourism have and recognition of local products, the development of a competitive offering, the professionalism of human resources throughout the value chain of food tourism through trai ning and retraining, and consumer protection and reception in order to increase visitor satisfaction. Communication. Destinations must articulate a credible and authentic narrative of their food tourism offerings.The travel experience has changed and is not limited to the days of actual travelling, but rather it starts much earlier, with its preparation (the tourist becomes inspired, gathers information, compares, purchases), and the experience ends when the traveller assesses and shares his experiences through social networks. Playing key roles in the process are: the great chefs who have ignited a revolution in the segment of high-end cuisine as a revitalizing element for tourism, the media (especially television), tourist guides, food blogs and social networks in the image building of a destination. And destinations must be present in all channels and all parts of this process. Cooperation.It is necessary for the actors operating in chefs, restaurateurs, public administrations, h oteliers, food tourism product offerings. Inaki Gaztelumendi UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 11 What our Members say With a view to the publication of the Global Report on Food Tourism, a survey was conducted among the UNWTO Members, working in diverse sectors around the world, were received in this regard. Strategy According to the results this survey, 88. 2% of respondents the brand and image of their destination. Only 11. 8% were of the opinion that gastronomy plays a minor role. â€Å"gastronomy is a strategic and image of their destination† However, a smaller percentage of respondents believe that their country has its own gastronomic brand: only percentage (32. %) believe that their country has not structured its own brand of gastronomy, meaning that, in general, destinations still have some ways to go in terms of Gastronomic Culture Among the elements of the gastronomic culture of the destination which they consider should be featured in promotional campaigns today , most respondents cite the quality, variety and regional diversity of foods, notably, meat, etc. As added value they lean towards broader concepts such as the Mediterranean diet, included on the UNESCO World Heritage list, healthy cooking, sustainability, or multiculturalism. They also point to the importance of restaurant offerings with a strong local basis (Mediterranean, oriental, ethnic, etc. ) that combine tradition and innovation, and the role of international cuisine.As for gastronomic tourism products that exist in their place the importance of food events (expressed by 79% of 12 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism respondents). This is followed by gastronomic routes and cooking classes and workshops, with 62% answering and visits to markets and producers (53%). Having less weight among gastronomic tourism product offerings are museums (cited by only 12% of respondents), and presentations with 6% of positive answers. 68% of the organizations consulted carry out marketing ac tivities or promotion based on Food Tourism. The marketing and promotional tools most used by these entities are: organizing events (91%), producing brochures and advertising (82%) and dedicated websites on food tourism (78 %).At a lower level are promotional tools such as tourism guides (61%), blogs (43%), and familiarization trips for journalists and tour operators (13%). And lastly, only 4% of the organizations surveyed said they used social networks for the promotion of food tourism. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 13 Economic Impact Currently food tourism is still a regional phenomenon. According to the results of the survey, the marketing of gastronomic tourism products gives top priority to the regional market. At a second level are the local and national markets. And in last place is the international market. Finally, the survey asked respondents for an estimate of the economic impact of food tourism on their destination.In general, most of the organizations surveyed ind icated that there is still no systematic analysis of the economic impact of food tourism. However, they consider that the weight of gastronomy in tourism revenue in destinations have a large margin to work with in this respect. Cooperation Asked about the existence at their destination of collaboration between the tourism sector and local gastronomy actors (producers, restaurants, markets, etc. ), the general opinion is that there is cooperation on concrete marketing actions, in particular, with local restaurants, but there are currently no stable instruments of cooperation for the development and promotion of food tourism. In fact, 37. 5% of respondents recognizeFrom the results of the survey it is possible to draw a set of general recommendations for tourism destinations promotion of food tourism. First, traditional strategies in the development of food tourism must give way to strategic tools to articulate the quality, variety and uniqueness of local products and gastronomy of a territory. These offerings, presented with authenticity and as experiences to be lived, must be based on the values of cultural identity, sustainability, the quality of tourism products and services, and consumer protection. Also, in a highly competitive situation like the â€Å"we need to create stable instruments of cooperation for the development and promotion of food tourism† 14 UNWTOGlobal Report on Food Tourism current one, market knowledge should be one of the food guides—the organization of events, the media and use of the Internet and social networks. Third, both in the conceptualization as well as in the Members agree on the importance of establishing cooperation instruments among all actors in the value chain of Food Tourism at the local level (producers, tour operators, public administrations, etc. ). Finally, the survey shows the need to promote knowledge and research on Food Tourism. Therefore, the creation of plans to establish development guidelines and create gastronomic tourism products is seen as a priority for destinations. f seizing the opportunity represented by gastronomy for destinations. Key factors in this regard are: bringing chefs on board as interpreters of the territory, the development of high-quality and credible promotional tools—such as And additionally the following partners: UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 15 Case Studies International Initiatives Euro-toques in Europe: 3500 artisan cooks in defence of â€Å"eating well† Euro-Toques is neither a promotion association nor a new which are our best products. Our goal is to give value to seasonal products and to defend regional artisan production. Euro-Toques is recognized by the European Union as an organization that defends Quality Food.It forms part of the privileged network of contacts of the European Commission. Euro-toques acts as a lobby group in European and national institutions. The organization focuses its activities on Food Law as well as on the new Common Agricultural Policy, the Common Fisheries Policy and DG SANCO activities. Our bywords: Taste, Safety, Authenticity. And therefore: Act in order not to suffer. The art of cooking should adapt itself to our times. Let us be creative, let us be open to neighbouring cultures, but let us preserve our beautiful regional traditions and adapt them to modern tastes. These are the foundations of quality gastronomic tourism.We advocate a model based on the diversity of traditions and regions, quality products, products of the land and traditional recipes, which are the guarantee of the culinary heritage and continuity of local products. The products used in our kitchens are fresh and are prepared on the premises. Our work is based on seasonal products in order to respect the cycles of nature and ensure an authentic taste. And this respect for tradition is compatible with modernity: the pleasure and the art of living are passed on. Moreover, we chefs play an important role in consumer protection and the preservation of knowledge of our territory. Not only do we help people eat well, but we also welcome visitors and advise them about our gastronomy, products, places†¦ President, Euro-Toques Spain 18 UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismAt present, one of the major projects of Euro-toques is the creation of a gastronomic map of Spain. A map in which typical local products are represented in each community, province, city and town; and if possible accompanied by recipes. Traditional recipes, and modern ones as well. Recipes that show that the identity of a land is also determined by its products, by the producers who cultivate them, and by the cooks who buy and transform them, thus disseminating a gastronomic culture. The idea is to ultimately develop a collection of recipes that represent a distillation of local cuisines, thus highlighting the diversity of the different territories of Spain.The project consists of putting together an anthology of th e products and recipes of the various peoples of Spain, with the ultimate goal of producing a manual and a history of the different parts of our country that are named or are renowned for a product, a dish or an outstanding gastronomic activity. Euro- toques is an international organization representing more than 3500 chefs and cooks from 18 countries. It was founded by Pierre Romeyer, Paul Bocuse, Juan Mari Arzak and Pedro Subijana, among other famous chefs, on 18 November 1986, in Brussels, at the urging of the European Commission President Jacques Delors. The main objectives of Euro-toques are: To promote the good practices of artisan food producers. To protect the culinary heritage of Europe in all its diversity and with its different origins.To safeguard the healthiness of food products and encourage natural combinations. To demand proper labelling in order to provide consumers with clear information allowing them to make choices based on solid criteria. euro-toques. org Let us be creative, let us be open to neighbouring cultures, but let us preserve our beautiful regional traditions and adapt them to modern tastes. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 19 Food and the tourism experience Greg Richards, Tilburg University, Netherlands Food and tourism play a major part in the contemporary experience economy. Food is a key part of all cultures, a major element of global intangible heritage and an increasingly important attraction for tourists.The linkages between food and tourism also provide a platform for local economic development, and food experiences help to brand and market destinations, as well as supporting the local culture that is so attractive to tourists (Hjalager and Richards, 2002; OECD, 2009). Food experiences have become more important in tourism as the ‘Experience Economy’ has developed. Pine and Gilmore (1999) argue that the consumer no longer pays for the basic service, but for the complete experience. In the case of food, peop le are willing to pay a premium for the added value offered by food experiences, which provide a gateway into local culture, creativity and landscapes. Tourist food experiences in particular are often contrasted with ‘everyday’ or basic eating, as people search for ‘authenticity’ and distinction in local food and gastronomy.Food provides a basis for tourism experiences by: Linking culture and tourism Developing the meal experience Producing distinctive foods Developing the critical infrastructure for food production and consumption Supporting local culture Food experiences can also stimulate local development, because food tourism is high yield tourism, that can extend the tourist season and diversify rural economies. Food experiences are labour intensive and create jobs while creating backward linkages that stimulate agriculture, and they generally do not require major new investment. Food can contribute to regional attractiveness, sustain the local enviro nment and cultural heritage and strengthen local identities and sense of community.Food and gastronomy can also in themselves be considered as creative industries, helping to stimulate innovation by involving the consumer in co-creation, stimulating links between global and local cultures (e. g. Fusion foods, foodways that link cultures) and creating narratives around food. In this sense, gastronomic tourism can be seen as a form of ‘creative tourism’ (Richards, 2011), which allows 20 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism tourists to develop their creativity though contact with local people and their creative lives. Major areas of innovation currently taking place around food, gastronomy and tourism include creative tourism experiences (such as cooking and food appreciation courses), food events, food trails, new cuisines (e. g. New Asian Cuisine in Singapore) and building narratives around food.Food can also provide the basis of branding and marketing activities, includi ng: Partnerships between food producers, rastaurants and the tourism industry Setting standards for local foods Lifestyle positioning, emphasizing the attractiveness of lifestyles related to gastronomy Indentifying niches Theming and packaging Developing specialty restaurants Communicating the national or regional brand through gastronomy (such as the Prove Portugal programme). The numerous case studies in the OECD study indicate that the critical success factors for food experiences in tourism include Providing a good culinary offer at home, that stimulate appreciation of food and support gastronomy that is also attractive to visitors. Developing a network of good quality restaurants Developing food and wine exportation. Education and training and attracting talent Positioning chefs in world rankings (for example ‘Gastrostars’ such as Ferran Adria) Linking food experiences to tourist needs Providing ‘glocalised’ fods that link to tourist needs as well as s howcasing authentic local cuisine or national and regional authorities: Ensure a solid base of local food culture Start from the basics (Quality, authenticity, locality) Build coalitions (Public, private partnership) Spread the message (Build the brand, communicate clearly) Develop a holistic approach (Tourism should be seen as one aspect of the entire food value network) tilburguniversity. edu References In Dodd, D. (ed. ) Food and the Tourism Experience. OECD, Paris, pp. 13-46. Gastronomy. Routledge, London. OECD (2009) The Impact of Culture on Tourism. Paris: OECD. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Richards, G. (2011) Creativity and tourism: The state of the art. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), Pages 1225–1253. Greg Richards UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 21 FODA fuel†.If it is thought of as a nourishing substance, taken into the body to sustain life, provide energy, and promote growth, then we’re on the way to healthy living. If however, it is th ought of merely as fuel, to be consumed as quickly and as cheaply as possible, as it is so often these days, we’re heading in a dangerous, unsustainable direction; we’re heading towards monoculture of the lowest common denominator, leading to all manners of physical and social ills. Thankfully, increasing numbers of people around the world Catherine Gazzoli, and tradition, and the positive social impacts of developing culinary tourism. The Slow Food Foundation for Biodiversity shares these aims.It protects the environment, defends food biodiversity, promotes sustainable agriculture, supports small-scale producers and values their traditional knowledge. It runs projects around the world, such as the Ark of Taste, an international catalogue of traditional products at risk of extinction; Forgotten Foods, saving original breeds, vegetable varieties, breads and cheeses; Earth Markets promoting regional producers in their local communities; A Thousand Gardens In Africa, crea ting food gardens in schools, villages and urban areas. In Britain we recently presented Slow Food UK Week, featuring occasions such as Eating the Italian Way, a food art performance from the year 2062, a ground-breaking – Kentish Cob Nut.The climax of the week was a form of Food Roulette, where members of the public spun our nine-foot, green and orange Forgotten Foods Wheel, featuring British foods that are largely unknown to the general public. Samples of each were placed in trays set in each section. Whatever you landed on was yours! People tried Dove’s Farm Einkorn Flour, an ancient grain made into a dense, nutty bread, and quite rightly asked â€Å"Why have we heard of cous cous from Morocco, and quinoa from Peru, but not einkorn from Britain? † There were also Three Little Pigs chorizo, made from big, black hairy Rare-Breed Berkshire Pigs, and Jersey Black 22 UNWTO Global Report on Food TourismButter, a fruit based condiment that a Food Roulette winner sai d tasted like â€Å"Christmas in a Jar†. These and many other foods have been collected as Forgotten producers. For example, the sales of Morecambe Bay as a Forgotten Food. By highlighting a particular heritage food and community, consumers are encouraged to visit that community, widening the reach for the programme. Further good news is that the popularity of farmers markets, the appreciation of artisan producers, and the demand for culinary tourism are all on the rise. are voting with their feet and wallets for good, clean, fair food. Culinary tourism does not have to mean gourmet food. It is increasingly about unique and memorable experiences. It includes the dining xperience itself, but also an awareness that supporting such endeavours has the ability to generate rural development. It helps to diversity revenue sources, and improves rural employment and income levels. Economic objectives are as crucial as environmental, measurable, via better prices, quantities produced, and numbers employed. Local foods are disappearing their activity, producers must have economic assurance about their future. A wonderful example of integrated economic, environmental, cultural and social activity, are the Food Safaris run by Henry and Carolyn Chesshire in Herefordshire, Shropshire, Worcestershire and Wales. They are a local couple who have lived in this tranquil rural area their whole lives.They take groups of people – birthday parties, hen and stag parties, work outings, etc. – on culinary mystery tours, introducing them to the best locally produced food and drink. The visitors literally â€Å"eat the landscape†. So returning to our original topic, you can see that more and more people around the world are valuing food biodiversity and tradition, and the culinary tourism that this generates positively impacts communities. Here at Slow Food UK we will keep working passionately to promote good, clean, fair food. And you I am sure will be doing t he same for your local, regional and national communities. When it comes to foda, let’s all vote for nourishment rather than fuel. lowfood. org. uk Another wonderful legacy of Slow Food UK Week is our Chef Alliance. Many of Britain’s best chefs are now actively championing small-scale producers and their top quality, local, sustainably produced food. The chefs have created special menus using seasonal Forgotten Foods, and helped people to discover food that really matters, and drink that quenches more than thirst. Double Michelin-starred chef Marcus Wareing created a special menu for Slow Food UK Week using Forgotten Foods and heritage products such as Middle White Colchester oysters and Herdwick sheep, and has recently added Joe Schneider’s Artisan Stilton to the cheeseboard.Including these foods on the menu, increases interest in these products and encourages patrons to seek them out on their own. The chefs play a vital role in spreading awareness of quality p roduce threatened by the onslaught of industrial agriculture, environmental degradation, and market homogenization. They support artisan producers to revive and even rediscover traditional techniques. Catherine Gazzoli Slow Food UK also has a retail partner, Booth’s, a small chain of family-owned supermarkets in Northern England. UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 23 Tourism Destinations Azerbaijan: Aromas and tastes of the East with a European twist Larisa Javanshir, Editor-in-Chief, international tourism magazine Azerbaijan ReviewThe culinary masters of Azerbaijan have always attracted the admiration of visiting guests with their artistic skills. When merchants and warriors, historians and ambassadors of the Great Silk Road crossed the country, they often shared memories of the generous balmy cuisine of the Caspian state and brought home stories about the wonderful dishes they had been treated to. Azerbaijan cuisine has long won recognition both in the East and in Europe a s one of the most interesting on an historians and travelers and recorded in ancient written sources. The history of the art of creating culinary recipes in Azerbaijan is centuries old and based on the huge experience of ancestral cooks which has been kept to the present day. eople have become famous for their longevity. According to scientists this is down to the country’s favorable climate, lifestyle, ecologically pure products and principles of and vegetable dishes, all supplemented with soft greens and piquant spices. Friendliness towards those who come to eat and constant readiness to invite as many friends to table as possible, as well as the generous variety of offered dishes and snacks never cease to amaze foreign guests. as an invitation to a come to a generously laid table for the richest feast of tastes. Kebab houses in Azerbaijan have a similar importance to taverns in Italy, eating-houses in the Slavic countries, bistros in France etc.In the case of kebab houses however, every Since ancient times, ‘shashlik’ (kebab) has been the most favourite and traditional food among Azerbaijanis who live in northern, southern and western Azerbaijan. Shashlik course, taste it. The famous and delicious Azerbaijan ‘tendir chorek’ is, too, baked in natural ovens, just as juicy and aromatic shishlik is. 26 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism A sweet fairytale The Azerbaijan people’s favorite is pilaw, the main butter and saffron. Pilaw lovers are particularly fond of this type of rice cooked with Cornelian cherries. It is an exclusively impressive, beautiful and healthy dish, cooked for a long time while the aroma of meat, rice, butter and greens start teases the senses two to three hours before dinner. Be patient and you won’t regret it afterwards!By tradition, meals are crowned with sweets. In addition, main holidays of the country, e. g. ‘Novruz bayram’, inspire a true championship of baking. According to numerous foreign tourists who have tasted many local desserts, Azerbaijani national confectionery creates an unforgettable feeling of joyful discovery of a new world which tempts and allures over and over again. The main advantage of these dishes is that they are cooked on the basis of ancient, centuries-old recipes by using organic and ecologically pure products Weather-wise, March is one of the most uncertain months in Azerbaijan, though it is also the merriest since it is when the Novruz holiday is celebrated.The national cuisine of Azerbaijan always abides by centuries-old traditions, while the spring nuances of oriental dishes are the yet sparing sun and the awakening land help young herbs and vegetables to grow juicy, spicy, sweet or ‘with a touch of bitterness’. honey, select walnuts and hazelnuts, village eggs, perfect spices, as well as different additives which render any many unique recipes among which are those of ‘rakhatlukum’, ‘gozina ki’, ‘noghul’, jellied fruits and other â€Å"sweet fairy-tales† of Azerbaijan cookery which can stay fresh, soft and exquisite in appearance. You can taste the dishes of Azerbaijan cuisine listed in this article in almost any restaurant or kebab house, particularly in Baku, the capital city.Hospitable owners and cooks will offer you the best menu of the season and will always wish you â€Å"Noosh olsoon! † The Azerbaijani autumn brings health. This effect is also largely promoted by subtropical plants, the fruits of which are sparingly supplied to markets because when ripe this tender masterpiece of gardening art is balmy drink – none other than date-plums. There are nearly two hundred kinds of persimmon, of which only 4 or 5 are cultivated as garden residents. The best sort – the so-called ‘korolyok’ – is popular not only for its sugary pulp, but also for its magical salubrious qualities. Be aware that round and s olid fruits of quince conceal magical qualities of southern gardens.They are covered with thin velvet bloom and are hard to chew on, but once processed, quince is irreplaceable for tea-drinking. It is also indispensable as an ingredient for garnishing meat dishes, or for cooking special diet dishes. Condensed quince juice is used both as a sauce and as a panacea against anemia. Seeds and leaves of quince are also medicinal, as their aqueous tincture enfeebles and stops more popular than imported bananas, pineapples and coconuts. They are successfully replaced by kiwi, feijoa, walnuts and chestnuts. Larisa Javanshir UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 27 Brazil and its Paths of Flavour There are many ways of knowing the soul of a people.One of the most fascinating is, without a doubt, the gastronomy. The art of combining foods and seasonings, the rituals of preparing and serving, the pleasure of being together by the dining table, all of that is part of the much wider universe of thi s cultural heritage, this never ending set of values that determine our identity. It is exactly because of that, that gastronomy, besides being a competitive differential for tourism, is one of the tools that reveal the characteristics, traces, and culture of a people. Tourism, one of the most growing activities in the whole President of National Administrative Council, Brazilian Association of Bars and Restaurants (ABRASEL) ourism – by focusing its attention on valuing physical and intangible heritage, restoring traditions and preserving and spreading the symbols of national identity – is capable of opening borders for different investments and businesses. Few nations in the world have the privilege of having a culinary with such abundance of raw material, products, seasonings and aromas. Nature was generous with Brazil. We have some of the most beautiful natural scenarios of the planet, that helped create our country. Our gastronomy is a rare combination of simplicit y and exoticism, with traces of the identity of a one-of-a-kind culture. The discovery of Brazil is a never-ending adventure. The continental enormity of the country divides it into regions with clearly distinct gastronomic characteristics.In a simple way, it can be highlighted the gastronomy from the North/ Central-West, from the Northeast and from the South/ Southeast. In the North/Central-West regions, the intensity of the forests and rivers result in a great variety of exotic ingredients, diverse region’s tourist destinations related to nature, the Amazon Forest and the Pantanal – very exclusive ecosystems that are highly preserved – are strongly explored. The Forest and the Pantanal are certainly two of the biggest natural attractions of the country. Mother Nature was especially generous with the Brazilian Northeast region. There are three thousand kilometres of 28 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism the most beautiful beaches of clear and warm water, bless ed with a permanent summer.In each state of the Northeast, elements of African, indigenous, and European origins are joined in an explosion of sounds, richest Brazilian gastronomies, symbol of the hospitality of a people of simple soul and chanted speech. Much more than the basic trilogy of sun, beach and sea food, the Northeast is a region that has already consolidated its touristic calling and explores with originality its traditions and typical products. On this aspect, it should be highlighted the appropriation by the coastal culinary of elements of the countryside cooking, putting side by side gains more importance with the development of highly elaborated products for the Brazilian’s and the foreign tourist’s tastes.However, so many gastronomic values reunited, such diversity and gigantic harmony existing between cultural heritage and Brazil? s natural beauties may be useless if there is no safety in the production chain related to the food and beverage in the co untry. The Brazilian Government authorities are permanently concerned with the patterns of Food Safety of all that is served to its resident population as well as to the foreign tourists that are either visiting or on business in Brazil. The rules of surveillance and control in Brazil are comprehensive and strict, but knowing this is not enough for us. It is necessary that countries they visit or work safety criteria acknowledged internationally.This acknowledgement will guarantee that international tourists can travel from country to country consuming the local food with tranquillity at the same time that they feel that their health is not in jeopardy. ABRASEL – The Brazilian Association for Bars and Restaurants is committed to assisting and developing these international criteria with special concern regarding important international sports events that will be hosted in a near future in our country. The FIFA World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016 will certainly hel p to disseminate the greatness of Brazilian gastronomy and the beauty and diversity of our tourist attractions. abrasel. com. br colonizers was highlighted: Portuguese, Italians, Germans and Arabs.Each of them lent to Brazilians ingredients and techniques that were developed here and allowed great part of the diverse gastronomy that characterizes us. Born in the South, the Gaucho barbecue spread all over the country and became a product of export, becoming one of the most recognized strengths of the Brazilian gastronomy abroad. In the countryside of the Southeast region, the culinary from Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo are mixed with subtle borders, resulting in different, outstanding and highly representative dishes of the Brazilian gastronomy and its culture. Our Caipirinha deserves special attention – important mark of the Brazilian intangible heritage and an internationally recognized icon.Every year the production of Cachaca UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 29 The Egyptia n food tourism experience Consumption is an integral aspect of the tourism experience, with the tourist consuming not only the sights and sounds, but also the taste of a place. Nearly all tourists eat out when they into another culture as it allows an individual to experience the â€Å"other† on a sensory level, beyond the purely intellectual. Locally produced food is a fundamental component of a destination’s attributes, adding to the range of attractions and the overall tourist experience. This makes food an essential constituent of tourism production as well as consumption.Furthermore, eating out is a growing form of leisure where meals are consumed not out of necessity but for pleasure, and the atmosphere and occasion are part of the leisure experience as much as the food itself. However, for tourists, eating out can both be a necessity and a pleasure. While some tourists dine simply to satisfy their hunger, others will head for a particular restaurant to experienc e the local food and cuisine, because it forms an important component of their travel itinerary. The growth of eating out as a form of consumption and the market forces of globalization have made the food products and cuisines from all over the world more accessible. This has stimulated the emergence of food as a popular topic in magazines, radio shows and television, with food shows focusing on travel and travel shows on food.In fact, the popularity of 24 hour television channels, such as Fatafeet devoted to food and its origins intertwines food with tourism so much that quite often it is hard to determine whether one is watching a food show or a travel show. Such developments have spurred an interest in experiencing the unique and indigenous food, food products and cuisines of a destination, so much so that people can cuisines or to taste the dishes of its â€Å"celebrity chef†. A very good example would be Gulf Tourists coming to Cairo in Ramadan to enjoy the unique food a nd atmosphere during the holy months in Egypt. Very often, tour operators tend to include a visit to Khan El Khalili in all Cairo schedules in order for tourists to enjoy oriental food and a unique atmosphere. From an economic point of view, nearly 100% of tourists spend money on food at their destination.Data shows that restaurant operators Egyptian Tourism Authority 30 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism reported that tourists are important to their business. This suggests that tourists’ food consumption makes a substantial contribution to the local restaurants, dining places, and food industry, and thereby the destination’s economy. In an increasingly competitive tourism marketplace, every region or destination is on a constant search for a unique product to differentiate itself from other destinations. Local food or cuisines that are unique to an area are one of the distinctive resources that may be used as marketing tool to attract more visitors.The growth of spec ial interest tourism is seen as a of the early 21st century leisure society. Post-modern tourism is slowly moving away from the traditional tourism attractions to being a part of an overall lifestyle that corresponds to people’s daily lives and activities. The growth of culinary tourism is seen as an outcome of this trend, as well as peoples’ tendency to spend much less time cooking, but choose to pursue their interest in food as part of a leisure experience such as watching cooking shows, dining out etc. Thus culinary tourism is a special interest for the tourist travel behavior and falls on the upper end of the food tourism interest continuum.The culinary tourist is also a cultural tourist. Thus, the obvious overlap of food as a special interest component as well as a cultural component makes the culinary tourist possibly both a special tourist and a cultural tourist. A survey of Special Interest Tours on the internet demonstrates that there are numerous tour operato rs conducting culinary tours all over the world. The culinary Cooking school holidays, Dining at restaurants famous for their local cuisines or their celebrity chefs and visiting food markets, Visiting food producers with tours specially related to just one product. Most culinary tours include a combination of all three types.In addition to the annual and periodical Culinary Awards Conferences that take place worldwide. Food is now listed as one of the components of cultural tourism, implying that food is representative of a culture. One of the dominate approaches in the social sciences used to explain food consumption is the cultural approach, with the others being economic and the psychological. With respect to tourism, even though tourists come across potentially unfamiliar foods to a greater degree at the destination than they would at home, globalization with its time and space compression has permitted more people to experience ethnic and foreign foods at their home.Finally an d as previously stated, in an increasingly competitive world of tourism marketing, where destinations look for unique selling propositions in positioning themselves, there is nothing more unique than the foods and cuisines based on locally-produced food in each destination. egypt. travel UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism 31 Food and wine tourism in Georgia There is a strong direct link between gastronomy and tourism, and gastronomy’s role in the development of niche travel is becoming even more important. When it comes to Georgia, gastronomy plays an extremely important role in the way tourists experience the destination, and for that matter some travellers return for the sole reason of savouring the unique and diverse gastronomy the country has to offer.Therefore, it would be well substantiated to assert that gastronomy is one of the key elements of our destination’s brand image. The enjoyment of good food and drink should not be underestimated; nowadays, there is a greater appreciation of how quality food and drink contribute to individual/societal wellbeing; Georgia is making all-out efforts to gain a niche in the highly competitive global tourism market, and is keen to assert itself as an attractive destination for gastronomy tourists. From ancient times agriculture has played a major role in Georgia, and to this day it remains one of the most promising sectors of Georgia’s economy. Forty-four percent of Georgia’s total area is considered to be agricultural.The country’s agricultural production is diverse, including viticulture, cereal production, and a wide range of vegetables, fruits, nuts, livestock, dairy, citrus and tea. Wheat and corn along with the milk and dairy sector are particularly strong, with the regions of the country. Georgia’s diverse climatic conditions and natural resource endowment allow production of a wide variety of agricultural products and favour the competitive development of the sector. Agriculture, apart from being crucial for economic development, is an essential element of Georgian culture. No agriculture means no cuisine; agriculture plays an essential role in keeping the beautiful landscapes of this country alive which constitute the major assets that tourists appreciate and value when arriving to Georgia.Georgia boasts the oldest, continuous, unbroken tradition of wine making in the world which stretches back 8,000 years. In fact it is said to be the birthplace of wine. Many say that the generic word ‘wine’ stems from the Georgian word ‘gvino’. Over 500 indigenous grape varieties are still cultivated here. The warm climate and moist air rising from the Black Sea provide the perfect conditions for the cultivation of grapevines. After many centuries of perfecting the tradition, it is not surprising that Georgian wines – Saperavi, Tsinandali, Mukuzani, Teliani, Napereuli are exquisite. Winemaking remains a vital part of Georgian Georgian National Tourism Administration 32 UNWTO Global Report on Food Tourism culture and national identity.Georgian families throughout the country grow their own grapes and produce wine the old-fashioned way, by placing grape juice in underground clay jars, or kvevri, topped with a wooden lid, covered and sealed with earth, to ferment during the winter. In Georgia, the food, just like wine, is quite reasonably an expression of the culture. Georgian cuisine, like those of other countries, varies from region to region. A when traveling east to west. Each historical province of Georgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, such as, for example, Megrelian, Kakhetian, or Imeretian cuisines